Moving Toward a New Horizon of Pediatric Stroke Intervention.
2021; 52 (3): 789–91
Neuroimaging selection for thrombectomy in pediatric stroke: a single-center experience
JOURNAL OF NEUROINTERVENTIONAL SURGERY
2019; 11 (9): 940–46
Pathways for Neuroimaging of Neonatal Stroke.
Does Device Selection Impact Recanalization Rate and Neurological Outcome?: An Analysis of the Save ChildS Study.
To provide consensus-based, suggested imaging protocols to facilitate the accurate and timely diagnosis of a neonate with symptoms concerning for stroke.The Writing Group, an international collaboration of pediatric neurologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in perinatal and childhood stroke, participated in a series of pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposia. These discussions, in conjunction with extensive literature review, led to a consensus for imaging protocols to guide practitioners in the diagnosis of neonatal stroke subtypes as defined by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Common Data Elements. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, and associated risk factors for arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke are reviewed, with a focused discussion regarding the role of neuroimaging for each subtype.In a neonate with suspected stroke, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred modality, given the lack of X-irradiation, superior anatomic resolution, and sensitivity for acute ischemia. Core recommended sequences include diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping to diagnose acute ischemia, gradient-recalled echo or susceptibility-weighted imaging to detect intracranial blood and its breakdown products, and T1- and T2-weighted imaging to assess for myelination, extra-axial blood, and edema. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain may be useful to detect vascular abnormalities, with venography if venous sinus thrombosis is suspected. The application of more novel sequences, as well as the utility of follow up-imaging, is also discussed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.12.008
View details for PubMedID 28262550
Diminished Blood Pressure Profiles in Children With Down Syndrome.
Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
Background and Purpose- The recent Save ChildS study provides multicenter evidence for the use of mechanical thrombectomy in children with large vessel occlusion arterial ischemic stroke. However, device selection for thrombectomy may influence rates of recanalization, complications, and neurological outcomes, especially in pediatric patients of different ages. We, therefore, performed additional analyses of the Save ChildS data to investigate a possible association of different thrombectomy techniques and devices with angiographic and clinical outcome parameters. Methods- The Save ChildS cohort study (January 2000-December 2018) analyzed data from 27 European and United States stroke centers and included all pediatric patients (<18 years), diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization. Patients were grouped into first-line contact aspiration (A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique [ADAPT]) and non-ADAPT groups as well as different stent retriever size groups. Associations with baseline characteristics, recanalization rates (modified Treatment in Cerebral Infarction), complication rates, and neurological outcome parameters (Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale after 24 hours and 7 days; modified Rankin Scale and Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure at discharge, after 6 and 24 months) were investigated. Results- Seventy-three patients with a median age of 11.3 years were included. Currently available stent retrievers were used in 59 patients (80.8%), of which 4*20 mm (width*length) was the most frequently chosen size (36 patients =61%). A first-line ADAPT approach was used in 7 patients (9.6%), and 7 patients (9.6%) were treated with first-generation thrombectomy devices. In this study, a first-line ADAPT approach was neither associated with the rate of successful recanalization (ADAPT 85.7% versus 87.5% No ADAPT) nor with the complication rate or the neurological outcome. Moreover, there were no associations of stent retriever sizes with rates of recanalization, complication rates, or outcome parameters. Conclusions- Our study suggests that neurological outcomes are generally good regardless of any specific device selection and suggests that it is important to offer thrombectomy in eligible children regardless of technique or device selection. Registration- URL: https://www.drks.de/; Unique identifier: DRKS00016528.
View details for DOI 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028221
View details for PubMedID 32114927
Cancer and Tumor-Associated Childhood Stroke: Results From the International Pediatric Stroke Study.
2020; 111: 59–65
This study sought to analyze blood pressure trends in children with Down syndrome at multiple centers. A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed. All patients were <18 years and had a diagnosis of Down syndrome. Existing comorbidities were nonexclusionary. For each patient, 3 blood pressure recordings were obtained from routine clinic visits. In total, 887 patients with 2661 total blood pressure recordings were included in this study. The average blood pressure percentile for patients was 38.87 with a median percentile of 31.5. Age, sex, and race were not predictive of blood pressure percentile. Compared with established data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort (ages 8-18 years), blood pressure in our Down syndrome population was statistically lower by 6.1 percentile points (P<0.001), with the greatest difference at higher blood pressure percentiles (P<0.001). Only 10% of all Down syndrome cohort blood pressure recordings were greater than the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 70th percentile, with no patients meeting criteria for prehypertension or hypertension. Additional comparisons against American Academy of Pediatrics data were similar and statistically significant. In children with Down syndrome, there is a 12 percentile point reduction in baseline blood pressure compared with age- and height-matched controls reported in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute/National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and American Academy of Pediatrics cohorts. This data can potentially be utilized in the evaluation and care of persons with Down syndrome in their pediatric medical homes.
View details for DOI 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.14416
View details for PubMedID 31928114
Neuroimaging of Pediatric Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
Journal of clinical medicine
2020; 9 (5)
The prevalence of cancer among children with stroke is unknown. This study sought to evaluate cancer- and tumor-associated childhood ischemic stroke in a multinational pediatric stroke registry.Children aged 29 days to less than 19 years with arterial ischemic stroke or cerebral sinovenous thrombosis enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study between January 2003 and June 2019 were included. Data including stroke treatment and recurrence were compared between subjects with and without cancer using Wilcoxon rank sum and chi-square tests.Cancer or tumor was present in 99 of 2968 children (3.3%) with arterial ischemic stroke and 64 of 596 children (10.7%) with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Among children in whom cancer type was identified, 42 of 88 arterial ischemic stroke cases (48%) had brain tumors and 35 (40%) had hematologic malignancies; 45 of 58 cerebral sinovenous thrombosis cases (78%) had hematologic malignancies and eight (14%) had brain tumors. Of 54 cancer-associated arterial ischemic stroke cases with a known cause, 34 (63%) were due to arteriopathy and nine (17%) were due to cardioembolism. Of 46 cancer-associated cerebral sinovenous thrombosis cases with a known cause, 41 (89%) were related to chemotherapy-induced or other prothrombotic states. Children with cancer were less likely than children without cancer to receive antithrombotic therapy for arterial ischemic stroke (58% vs 80%, P = 0.007) and anticoagulation for cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (71% vs 87%, P = 0.046). Recurrent arterial ischemic stroke (5% vs 2%, P = 0.04) and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (5% vs 1%, P = 0.006) were more common among children with cancer.Cancer is an important risk factor for incident and recurrent childhood stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for children with cancer are needed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.06.002
View details for PubMedID 32951663
Clinical diffusion mismatch to select pediatric patients for embolectomy 6 to 24 hours after stroke: An analysis of the Save ChildS Study.
Hemorrhagic strokes account for half of all strokes seen in children, and the etiologies of these hemorrhagic strokes differ greatly from those seen in adult patients. This review gives an overview about incidence and etiologies as well as presentation of children with intracerebral hemorrhage and with differential diagnoses in the emergency department. Most importantly it describes how neuroimaging of children with intracerebral hemorrhage should be tailored to specific situations and clinical contexts and recommends specific imaging protocols for acute and repeat imaging. In this context it is important to keep in mind the high prevalence of underlying vascular lesions and adapt the imaging protocol accordingly, meaning that vascular imaging plays a key role regardless of modality. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including advanced sequences, should be favored whenever possible at the acute phase.
View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm9051518
View details for PubMedID 32443470
Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage Following Intravenous tPA (Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator) for Acute Stroke Is Low in Children.
To determine whether thrombectomy is safe in children up to 24 hours after onset of symptoms when selected by mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.A secondary analysis of the Save ChildS Study (01/2000-12/2018) was performed, including all pediatric patients (<18 years), diagnosed with Arterial Ischemic Stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization at 27 European and United States stroke centers. Patients were included if they had a relevant mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.Twenty children with a median age of 10.5 years (interquartile range; IQR 7-14.6) were included. Of those 7 were male (35%) and median time from onset to thrombectomy was 9.8 hours (IQR 7.8-16.2). Neurologic outcome improved from a median Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (PedNIHSS) score of 12.0 (IQR, 8.8-20.3) at admission to 2.0 (IQR, 1.2-6.8) at day 7. Median modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 1.0 (IQR, 0-1.6) at 3 months and 0.0 (IQR, 0-1.0) at 24 months. One patient developed transient peri-interventional vasospasm; no other complications were observed. A comparison of the mRS to the mRS in the DAWN and DEFUSE 3 trials revealed a higher proportion of good outcomes in the pediatric compared to the adult study population.Thrombectomy in pediatric ischemic stroke in an extended time window of up to 24 hours after onset of symptoms seems safe and neurological outcomes are generally good, if patients are selected by a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct.This study provides Class IV evidence that for children with acute ischemic stroke with a mismatch between clinical deficit and infarct size, thrombectomy is safe.
View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011107
View details for PubMedID 33144517
Feasibility, Safety, and Outcome of Endovascular Recanalization in Childhood Stroke: The Save ChildS Study.
Background and Purpose- Data regarding the safety and efficacy of intravenous tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) in childhood acute arterial ischemic stroke are inadequate. The TIPS trial (Thrombolysis in Pediatric Stroke; National Institutes of Health grant R01NS065848)-a prospective safety and dose-finding trial of intravenous tPA in acute childhood stroke-was closed for lack of accrual. TIPS sites have subsequently treated children with acute stroke in accordance with established institutional protocols supporting data collection on outcomes. Methods- Data on children treated with intravenous tPA for neuroimaging-confirmed arterial ischemic stroke were collected retrospectively from 16 former TIPS sites to establish preliminary safety data. Participating sites were required to report all children who were treated with intravenous tPA to minimize reporting bias. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) was defined as ECASS (European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study) II parenchymal hematoma type 2 or any intracranial hemorrhage associated with neurological deterioration within 36 after following tPA administration. A Bayesian beta-binomial model for risk of SICH following intravenous tPA was fit using a prior distribution based on the risk level in young adults (1.7%); to test for robustness, the model was also fit with uninformative and conservative priors. Results- Twenty-six children (age range, 1.1-17 years; median, 14 years; 12 boys) with stroke and a median pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 14 were treated with intravenous tPA within 2 to 4.5 hours (median, 3.0 hours) after stroke onset. No patient had SICH. Two children developed epistaxis. Conclusions- The estimated risk of SICH after tPA in children is 2.1% (95% highest posterior density interval, 0.0%-6.7%; mode, 0.9%). Regardless of prior assumption, there is at least a 98% chance that the risk is <15% and at least a 93% chance that the risk is <10%. These results suggest that the overall risk of SICH after intravenous tPA in children with acute arterial ischemic stroke, when given within 4.5 hours after symptom onset, is low.
View details for DOI 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027225
View details for PubMedID 31842706
Blood Pressure Elevation and Risk of Moyamoya Syndrome in Patients With Trisomy 21.
Importance: Randomized clinical trials have shown the efficacy of thrombectomy of large intracranial vessel occlusions in adults; however, any association of therapy with clinical outcomes in children is unknown.Objective: To evaluate the use of endovascular recanalization in pediatric patients with arterial ischemic stroke.Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study, conducted from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2018, analyzed the databases from 27 stroke centers in Europe and the United States. Included were all pediatric patients (<18 years) with ischemic stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization. Median follow-up time was 16 months.Exposures: Endovascular recanalization.Main Outcomes and Measures: The decrease of the Pediatric National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (PedNIHSS) score from admission to day 7 was the primary outcome (score range: 0 [no deficit] to 34 [maximum deficit]). Secondary clinical outcomes included the modified Rankin scale (mRS) (score range: 0 [no deficit] to 6 [death]) at 6 and 24 months and rate of complications.Results: Seventy-three children from 27 participating stroke centers were included. Median age was 11.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 7.0-15.0); 37 patients (51%) were boys, and 36 patients (49%) were girls. Sixty-three children (86%) received treatment for anterior circulation occlusion and 10 patients (14%) received treatment for posterior circulation occlusion; 16 patients (22%) received concomitant intravenous thrombolysis. Neurologic outcome improved from a median PedNIHSS score of 14.0 (IQR, 9.2-20.0) at admission to 4.0 (IQR, 2.0-7.3) at day 7. Median mRS score was 1.0 (IQR, 0-1.6) at 6 months and 1.0 (IQR, 0-1.0) at 24 months. One patient (1%) developed a postinterventional bleeding complication and 4 patients (5%) developed transient peri-interventional vasospasm. The proportion of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage events in the HERMES meta-analysis of trials with adults was 2.79 (95% CI, 0.42-6.66) and in Save ChildS was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.03-7.40).Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that the safety profile of thrombectomy in childhood stroke does not differ from the safety profile in randomized clinical trials for adults; most of the treated children had favorable neurologic outcomes. This study may support clinicians' practice of off-label thrombectomy in childhood stroke in the absence of high-level evidence.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.3403
View details for PubMedID 31609380
Moyamoya Disease in Children: Results From the International Pediatric Stroke Study
JOURNAL OF CHILD NEUROLOGY
2017; 32 (11): 924–29
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk for the development of moyamoya syndrome (MMS); MMS is often recognized only after a resulting stroke has occurred. Our goal with this study was to determine if elevations in blood pressure (BP) precede acute presentation of MMS in individuals with DS.METHODS: A single-center, retrospective case-control study was performed. Thirty patients with MMS and DS and 116 patients with DS only were identified retrospectively. Three BP recordings were evaluated at set intervals (18-24 months, 12-18 months, and 6-12 months before diagnosis of MMS). These were then compared against control averages from patients with DS only. To assess changes over the time, we used general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance. To identify independent predictors of MMS and DS, we used a multivariable analysis using generalized estimating equations accounting for repeated measures of BP.RESULTS: BP in patients with MMS and DS rose significantly over the 24-month period preceding presentation (34th, 42nd, and 70th percentiles at the 18-24-month, 12-18-month, and 6-12-month periods, respectively). BPs in the patients with both MMS and DS were significantly higher than in the DS-only controls in the 6 to 12 (P < .001) and 12 to 18 months before presentation (P = .016). Higher Suzuki scores, bilateral disease, and posterior circulation involvement were also predictive of BP elevation before presentation.CONCLUSIONS: Elevations in BP may foreshadow presentation of MMS in individuals with DS. This simple, low-cost screening measure may lead to early identification of at-risk patients in the medical home and prevent irreversible neurologic injury.
View details for PubMedID 30190347
R-SCAN: Imaging for Pediatric Simple Febrile Seizures.
Journal of the American College of Radiology
Pathways for Neuroimaging of Childhood Stroke
2017; 69: 11-23
This study aimed to describe children with moyamoya disease from an international multicenter stroke database, and explore risk factors for stroke recurrence. We reviewed data of children >28-days old with moyamoya disease enrolled in the International Pediatric Stroke Study from January 2003 to March 2013. A total of 174 children from 32 sites and 14 countries had moyamoya disease; median age 7.4 years, 49% male. Of these, 90% presented with ischemic stroke, 7.5% with transient ischemic attack, and 2.5% with hemorrhagic stroke. One-third of patients had moyamoya syndrome. Stroke recurrence was 20% over median follow-up of 13 months; 9% had multiple recurrences. Children treated with surgical revascularization were less likely to have stroke recurrence ( P = .046). Moyamoya disease accounted for 8% of arterial strokes in this international pediatric stroke registry. One-third of pediatric patients with moyamoya disease have an underlying syndromic condition. Surgical revascularization is effective at reducing the incidence of stroke recurrence.
View details for PubMedID 28715924
R-SCAN: Imaging for Pediatric Minor Head Trauma.
Journal of the American College of Radiology
2017; 14 (2): 294-297
A New Association Between Castleman Disease and Immune-Mediated Cerebellitis
2015; 72 (6): 722-723
The purpose of this article is to aid practitioners in choosing appropriate neuroimaging for children who present with symptoms that could be caused by stroke.The Writing Group members participated in one or more pediatric stroke neuroimaging symposiums hosted by the Stroke Imaging Laboratory for Children housed at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Through collaboration, literature review, and discussion among child neurologists with expertise diagnosing and treating childhood stroke and pediatric neuroradiologists and neuroradiologists with expertise in pediatric neurovascular disease, suggested imaging protocols are presented for children with suspected stroke syndromes including arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke.This article presents information about the epidemiology and classification of childhood stroke with definitions based on the National Institutes of Health Common Data Elements. The role of imaging for the diagnosis of childhood stroke is examined in depth, with separate sections for arterial ischemic stroke, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, and hemorrhagic stroke. Abbreviated neuroimaging protocols for rapid diagnosis are discussed. The Writing Group provides suggestions for optimal neuroimaging investigation of various stroke types in the acute setting and suggestions for follow-up neuroimaging. Advanced sequences such as diffusion tensor imaging, perfusion imaging, and vessel wall imaging are also discussed.This article provides protocols for the imaging of children who present with suspected stroke.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.12.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000398648400003
View details for PubMedID 28274641