Perioperative Neurological Evaluation and Management to Lower the Risk of Acute Stroke in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac, Nonneurological Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association
2021; 143 (19): E923-E946
Tilt-Corrected Region Boundaries May Enhance the Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score for Less Experienced Raters.
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
Perioperative stroke is a potentially devastating complication in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonneurological surgery. This scientific statement summarizes established risk factors for perioperative stroke, preoperative and intraoperative strategies to mitigate the risk of stroke, suggestions for postoperative assessments, and treatment approaches for minimizing permanent neurological dysfunction in patients who experience a perioperative stroke. The first section focuses on preoperative optimization, including the role of preoperative carotid revascularization in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis and delaying surgery in patients with recent strokes. The second section reviews intraoperative strategies to reduce the risk of stroke, focusing on blood pressure control, perioperative goal-directed therapy, blood transfusion, and anesthetic technique. Finally, this statement presents strategies for the evaluation and treatment of patients with suspected postoperative strokes and, in particular, highlights the value of rapid recognition of strokes and the early use of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical embolectomy in appropriate patients.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000968
View details for Web of Science ID 000649074100004
View details for PubMedID 33827230
Stroke in Pregnancy
SEMINARS IN NEUROLOGY
2017; 37 (6): 669-678
The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to quantify early ischemic changes in the anterior circulation but has limited inter-rater reliability.We investigated whether application of 3-dimensional boundaries outlining the ASPECTS regions improves inter-rater reliability and accuracy.We included all patients from our DEFUSE 2 database who had a pretreatment noncontrast computed tomography scan (NCCT) of acceptable quality. Six raters (2 neuroradiologists, 2 vascular neurologists, and 2 neurology residents) scored ASPECTS of each NCCT without ("CT-native") and with the superimposed boundary template ("CT-template"). Gold-standard ASPECTS were generated by the 2 neuroradiologists through joint adjudication. Inter-rater reliability and accuracy were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for full-scale agreements and Gwet's AC1 for dichotomized (ASPECTS 0-6 vs 7-10) agreements.Eighty-two patients were included. Inter-rater reliability improved with higher training level for both CT-native (ICC = .15, .31, .54 for residents, neurologists, and radiologists, respectively) and CT-template (ICC = .18, .33, .56). Use of the boundary template improved correlation with the gold-standard for one resident on full-scale agreement (ICC increased from .01 to .31, P = .01) and another resident on dichotomized agreement (AC1 increased from .36 to .64, P = .01), but resulted in no difference for other raters. The template did not improve ICC between raters of the same training level.Inter-rater reliability of ASPECTS improves with physician training level. Standardized display of ASPECTS region boundaries on NCCT does not improve inter-rater reliability but may improve accuracy for some less experienced raters.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104820
View details for PubMedID 32307316
Pregnancy and the postpartum period confer an increased risk of stroke. The risk appears to be increased for all strokes during the puerperium and for hemorrhagic strokes during pregnancy. During pregnancy, physiologic systems are under increased stress to accommodate the growing fetus, which results in substantial hemodynamic, cardiovascular, hematologic, immunologic, and structural connective tissue changes that account for much of this increased risk. In addition, preeclampsia-eclampsia has major effects on the vascular system, and this disorder, unique to pregnancy, is another major contributor to this risk. The common independent vascular risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, may also be present to contribute to the risks conferred by pregnancy. Though uncommon, stroke during pregnancy and in the postpartum period causes substantial morbidity and mortality in affected women, and it poses a significant risk to the fetus. This review will discuss the epidemiology of pregnancy-associated stroke, specific risk factors and mechanisms, clinical presentation and management, and future directions.
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0037-1608940
View details for Web of Science ID 000418733000010
View details for PubMedID 29270940