New insights into B cells as antigen presenting cells.
Current opinion in immunology
2021; 70: 129-137
The spleen: "epicenter" in malaria infection and immunity.
Journal of leukocyte biology
In addition to their role as antibody producing cells, B cells make a critical contribution to adaptive immune responses by functioning as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). Distinctive features of B cells as APC include the expression of the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen and regulated expression of HLA-DO. Here, we discuss recent progress in investigation of B cells as APC. We start with an update on the canonical MHC class II antigen presentation pathway in B cells and alternative pathways, including generation of extracellular vesicles. Turning to APC function, we highlight the roles of B cells as thymic APC, as APC for T follicular helper (TFH), as APC for CD4 memory T cells and as presenters of idiotypic BCR determinants. We also note recent examples that link B cell Ag-presentation to disease. Emerging evidence indicates that, in addition to unique features of B cells compared to other professional APC, there is appreciable heterogeneity among B cells, arising from, for example, B cell activation state or the microenvironment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2021.06.003
View details for PubMedID 34242927
Pulse-Chase Analysis for Studies of MHC Class II Biosynthesis, Maturation, and Peptide Loading.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
2019; 1988: 315–41
The spleen is a complex secondary lymphoid organ that plays a crucial role in controlling blood-stage infection with Plasmodium parasites. It is tasked with sensing and removing parasitized RBCs, erythropoiesis, the activation and differentiation of adaptive immune cells, and the development of protective immunity, all in the face of an intense inflammatory environment. This paper describes how these processes are regulated following infection and recognizes the gaps in our current knowledge, highlighting recent insights from human infections and mouse models.
View details for DOI 10.1002/JLB.4RI1020-713R
View details for PubMedID 33464668
Pulse-chase analysis is a commonly used technique for studying the synthesis, processing, and transport of proteins. Cultured cells expressing proteins of interest are allowed to take up radioactively labeled amino acids for a brief interval ("pulse"), during which all newly synthesized proteins incorporate the label. The cells are then returned to nonradioactive culture medium for various times ("chase"), during which proteins may undergo conformational changes, trafficking, or degradation. Proteins of interest are isolated (usually by immunoprecipitation) and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the fate of radiolabeled molecules is examined by autoradiography. This chapter describes a pulse-chase protocol suitable for studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II biosynthesis and maturation. We discuss how results are affected by the recognition by certain anti-class II antibodies of distinct class II conformations associated with particular biosynthetic states. Our protocol can be adapted to follow the fate of many other endogenously synthesized proteins, including viral or transfected gene products, in cultured cells.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-9450-2_23
View details for PubMedID 31147950