Honors & Awards

  • Magstim Travel Award, Magstim Company Limited (02/06/2017)
  • Overseas Fieldwork Grant, Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) (02/13/2015)
  • Research Training Support Grant, Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) (02/17/2017)
  • Award from Contribution to TMS in ASD, Clearly Present Foundation (02/20/2019)
  • Guarantors of BRAIN Travel Award, Guarantors of BRAIN (03/28/2017)
  • Autism Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship, Autism Science Foundation (04/09/2020)
  • Masters in Cognitive Neuroscience with Distinction, The University of York (07/01/2014)
  • Jump Start Award, Stanford University (09/11/2020)
  • Full Scholarship, Bay Area Adult Autism Conference, Stanford University (10/29/2019)
  • Grindley Grant, Experimental Psychology Society (12/12/2016)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), The University of York, Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuroimaging (2018)
  • Master of Science (MSc), The University of York, Cognitive Neuroscience (2014)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of Manchester (2012)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • Accelerated Neuromodulation Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Brain stimulation Williams, N. R., Sudheimer, K. D., Cole, E. J., Varias, A. D., Goldstein-Piekarski, A. N., Stetz, P. n., Lombardi, A. n., Filippou-Frye, M. n., van Roessel, P. n., Anderson, K. n., McCarthy, E. A., Wright, B. n., Sandhu, T. n., Menon, S. n., Jo, B. n., Koran, L. n., Williams, L. M., Rodriguez, C. I. 2021


    The open-label trial of Williams, Sudheimer, Cole, et al., suggests safety, feasibility, and high efficacy for treatment-refractory OCD of an accelerated, fMRI-guided, high-dose, cTBSmod protocol targeting the right frontal pole. Larger, randomized, controlled trials are needed to test the promising results of this pilot study. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV REGISTRY NUMBERS: NCT03404609.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brs.2021.02.013

    View details for PubMedID 33631349

  • Benchmarking aiTBS With the Gold Standard Jensen, E., Nejad, R., Cole, E., Williams, N. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S129
  • Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The American journal of psychiatry Cole, E. J., Stimpson, K. H., Bentzley, B. S., Gulser, M. n., Cherian, K. n., Tischler, C. n., Nejad, R. n., Pankow, H. n., Choi, E. n., Aaron, H. n., Espil, F. M., Pannu, J. n., Xiao, X. n., Duvio, D. n., Solvason, H. B., Hawkins, J. n., Guerra, A. n., Jo, B. n., Raj, K. S., Phillips, A. L., Barmak, F. n., Bishop, J. H., Coetzee, J. P., DeBattista, C. n., Keller, J. n., Schatzberg, A. F., Sudheimer, K. D., Williams, N. R. 2020: appiajp201919070720


    New antidepressant treatments are needed that are effective, rapid acting, safe, and tolerable. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation treatment that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment-resistant depression. Recent methodological advances suggest that the current iTBS protocol might be improved through 1) treating patients with multiple sessions per day at optimally spaced intervals, 2) applying a higher overall pulse dose of stimulation, and 3) precision targeting of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) circuit. The authors examined the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy (SAINT), an accelerated, high-dose resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)-guided iTBS protocol for treatment-resistant depression.Twenty-two participants with treatment-resistant depression received open-label SAINT. fcMRI was used to individually target the region of the left DLPFC most anticorrelated with sgACC in each participant. Fifty iTBS sessions (1,800 pulses per session, 50-minute intersession interval) were delivered as 10 daily sessions over 5 consecutive days at 90% resting motor threshold (adjusted for cortical depth). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and after SAINT.One participant withdrew, leaving a sample size of 21. Nineteen of 21 participants (90.5%) met remission criteria (defined as a score <11 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale). In the intent-to-treat analysis, 19 of 22 participants (86.4%) met remission criteria. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated no negative cognitive side effects.SAINT, an accelerated, high-dose, iTBS protocol with fcMRI-guided targeting, was well tolerated and safe. Double-blinded sham-controlled trials are needed to confirm the remission rate observed in this initial study.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19070720

    View details for PubMedID 32252538

  • The Potential of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Consensus Statement BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Cole, E. J., Enticott, P. G., Oberman, L. M., Gwynette, M., Casanova, M. F., Jackson, S. J., Jannati, A., McPartland, J. C., Naples, A. J., Puts, N. J., rTMS ASD Consensus Grp 2019; 85 (4): E21–E22
  • Accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation for treatment-resistant depression in patients with alcohol-use disorder Cole, E. J., Deng, H., Tate, W., Tischler, C., Stimpson, K., Bentzley, B., Schatzberg, A., Sanborn, K., Williams, N. 2019
  • Reduced connectivity between mentalizing and mirror systems in autism spectrum condition NEUROPSYCHOLOGIA Cole, E. J., Barraclough, N. E., Andrews, T. J. 2019; 122: 88–97
  • Case study: Cognitive and mood improvement in a patient with Parkinson’s disease and treatment-resistant depression following accelerated intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Cherian, K., Stimpson, K., Gulser, M., Cole, E., Sudheimer, K., Keller, J., Williams, N. 2019
  • Duration of response is associated with treatment resistance in accelerated iTBS protocol for treatment-resistant depression.  Gulser, M., Cole, E., Stimpson, K., Sudheimer, K., Williams, N. 2019
  • Accelerated theta burst stimulation for Bipolar I and II: Assessing clinical changes pre- and post-treatme Tischler, C., Gulser, M., Stimpson, K., Cole, E., Williams, N. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brs.2018.12.64

  • Structural correlates of accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation for treatment-refractory depression. DeSouza, D., Gulser , M., Cole, E., Stimpson, K., Xiao, X., Tischler, C., Bishop, J., Tate, W., Sudheimer, K.,  Williams, N. 2019
  • Depressive symptoms improved by accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation Deng, H., Cole, E., Gulser, M., Stimpson, K., Tischler, C., Sudheimer, K., Williams, N. 2019
  • Preliminary analysis of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation for treatment-resistant depression in an inpatient setting Tate, W., Cole, E., Tischler, C., Stimpson, K., Bentzley, B., Schatzberg, A., Sanborn, K., Williams, N. 2019
  • Accelerated intermittent theta-burst stimulation suppresses suicidal ideation in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Bentzley, B., Cole, E., Gulser, M., Stimpson, K., Hawkins, J., Xiao, X., Schatzberg, A., Sudheimer, K., Williams, N. 2019
  • Stanford accelerated intelligent neuromodulation therapy for treatment-resistant depression (SAINT-TRD). Cole, E. J., Gulser, M., Stimpson, K., Bentzley, B., Hawkins, J., Xiao, , X., Schatzberg, A., Sudheimer, K., Williams, N., et al 2019
  • Timing of mirror system activation when inferring the intentions of others BRAIN RESEARCH Cole, E. J., Barraclough, N. E. 2018; 1700: 109–17
  • Investigating Mirror System (MS) Activity in Adults with ASD When Inferring Others' Intentions Using Both TMS and EEG JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Cole, E. J., Barraclough, N. E., Enticott, P. G. 2018; 48 (7): 2350–67
  • Abilities to Explicitly and Implicitly Infer Intentions from Actions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Cole, E. J., Barraclough, N. E., Enticott, P. G. 2017


    Previous research suggests that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) might be associated with impairments on implicit but not explicit mentalizing tasks. However, such comparisons are made difficult by the heterogeneity of stimuli and the techniques used to measure mentalizing capabilities. We tested the abilities of 34 individuals (17 with ASD) to derive intentions from others' actions during both explicit and implicit tasks and tracked their eye-movements. Adults with ASD displayed explicit but not implicit mentalizing deficits. Adults with ASD displayed typical fixation patterns during both implicit and explicit tasks. These results illustrate an explicit mentalizing deficit in adults with ASD, which cannot be attributed to differences in fixation patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10803-017-3425-5

  • A simultaneous EEG and TMS study investigating mirror neuron system activity when inferring intentions Cole, E. J., et al 2017

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