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Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
  • resuscitation
  • team science
  • human factors
  • simulation

Academic Appointments

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Board Member, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (2018 - Present)
  • Board Member, International Pediatric Simulation Society (2018 - Present)
  • Education Committee Member, Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society (2017 - Present)
  • Committee Member, American Heart Association Quality Committee (2017 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship: Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh Pediatric Critical Care Fellowships (2008) PA
  • Fellowship: Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh Pediatric Critical Care Fellowships (2007) PA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (2008)
  • Fellowship, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Cardiovascular Intensive Care (2008)
  • Board Certification: American Board of Pediatrics, Pediatrics (2003)
  • Residency: Cedars Sinai Medical Center Pediatric Residency Ended 2004 (2003) CA
  • Medical Education: Temple University School of Medicine Registrar (2000) PA


All Publications

  • Use of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Modified T Cells With Extensive Leukemic Myocardial Involvement JACC: CARDIOONCOLOGY Han, B., Montiel-Esparza, R., Chubb, H., Kache, S., Schultz, L. M., Davis, K. L., Ramakrishna, S., Su, L. 2020; 2 (4): 666?70
  • Hacking teamwork in health care: Addressing adverse effects of ad hoc team composition in critical care medicine. Health care management review McLeod, P. L., Cunningham, Q. W., DiazGranados, D., Dodoiu, G., Kaplan, S., Keyton, J., Larson, N., LeNoble, C., Marsch, S. U., O'Neill, T. A., Parker, S. H., Semmer, N. K., Shuffler, M., Su, L., Tschan, F., Waller, M., Wang, Y. 2019


    BACKGROUND: The continued need for improved teamwork in all areas of health care is widely recognized. The present article reports on the application of a hackathon to the teamwork problems specifically associated with ad hoc team formation in rapid response teams.PURPOSES: Hackathons-problem-solving events pioneered in computer science-are on the rise in health care management. The focus of these events tends to be on medical technologies, however, with calls for improvements in management practices as general recommendations. The hackathon reported here contributes to health care management practice by addressing improvements in teamwork as the focal problem.METHODOLOGY: The hackathon event took place over 2.5 days in conjunction with an academic conference focused on group research. Three teams comprised of practicing healthcare professionals, academic researchers and students developed solutions to problems of ad hoc team formation in rapid response teams.FINDINGS: The event fulfilled several goals. The teams produced three distinct, yet complementary solutions that were backed by both field-based experience and solid research evidence. The event provided the opportunity for two-way translation of research and practice through direct collaboration among key stakeholders. The hackathon produced long term effects through establishing or strengthening collaborations, dissemination of the ideas through presentations, workshops, and publications, and changes in participants' work practices.PRACTICE IMPLICATION: The event demonstrated that hackathons, classically focused on technology, can also offer a spur to innovation around organizational processes. The article provides advice for organizing other hackathons focused on similar topics. The solutions offered by the participants in the event yields the clear insight that multipronged solutions for emergency-oriented teamwork are needed. The hackathon highlighted the scaled of collaboration and effort needed to tackle the many complexities in health care that impact outcomes for providers, patients, and health organizations.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HMR.0000000000000265

    View details for PubMedID 31804232

  • Applying Educational Theory to Interdisciplinary Education in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery McBride, M. E., Almodovar, M. C., Florez, A. R., Imprescia, A., Su, L., Allan, C. K. 2019: 2150135119881370


    At the 14th Annual International Meeting for the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society, the authors presented a simulation workshop for junior multidisciplinary providers focused on cardiopulmonary interactions. We provide an overview of educational theories of particular relevance to curricular design for simulation-based or enhanced activities. We then demonstrate how these theories are applied to curriculum development for individuals to teams and for novice to experts. We review the role of simulation in cardiac intensive care education and the education theories that support its use. Finally, we demonstrate how a conceptual framework, SIMZones, can be applied to design effective simulation-based teaching.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135119881370

    View details for PubMedID 31663840

  • Education and Training in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies McBride, M. E., Su, L., Allan, C. K. 2018; 19 (6): 585?86

    View details for PubMedID 29863644

  • Novel, 3D Display of Heart Models in the Postoperative Care Setting Improves CICU Caregiver Confidence WORLD JOURNAL FOR PEDIATRIC AND CONGENITAL HEART SURGERY Olivieri, L. J., Zurakowski, D., Ramakrishnan, K., Su, L., Alfares, F. A., Irwin, M. R., Heichel, J., Krieger, A., Nath, D. S. 2018; 9 (2): 206?13


    Postoperative care delivered in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) relies on providers' understanding of patients' congenital heart defects (CHDs) and procedure performed. Novel, bedside use of virtual, three-dimensional (3D) heart models creates access to patients' CHD to improve understanding. This study evaluates the impact of patient-specific virtual 3D heart models on CICU provider attitudes and care delivery.Virtual 3D heart models were created from standard preoperative cardiac imaging of ten patients with CHD undergoing repair and displayed on a bedside tablet in the CICU. Providers completed a Likert questionnaire evaluating the models' value in understanding anatomy and improving care delivery. Responses were compared using two-tailed t test and Mann-Whitney U test and were also compared to previously collected CICU provider responses regarding use of printed 3D heart models.Fifty-three clinicians (19 physicians, 34 nurses/trainees) participated; 49 (92%) of 53 and 44 (83%) of 53 reported at least moderate to high satisfaction with the virtual 3D heart's ability to enhance understanding of anatomy and surgical repair, respectively. Seventy-one percent of participants felt strongly that virtual 3D models improved their ability to manage postoperative problems. The majority of both groups (63% physicians, 53% nurses) felt that virtual 3D heart models improved CICU handoffs. Virtual 3D heart models were as effective as printed models in improving understanding and care delivery, with a noted provider preference for printed 3D heart models.Virtual 3D heart models depicting patient-specific CHDs are perceived to improve understanding and postoperative care delivery in the CICU.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135117745005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000429980300013

    View details for PubMedID 29544410

  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in congenital heart disease SEMINARS IN PERINATOLOGY Allen, K. Y., Allan, C. K., Su, L., McBride, M. E. 2018; 42 (2): 104?10


    This review article will discuss the indications for and outcomes of neonates with congenital heart disease who receive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Most commonly, ECMO is used as a perioperative bridge to recovery or temporary support for those after cardiac arrest or near arrest in patients with congenital or acquired heart disease. What had historically been considered a contraindication to ECMO, is evolving and more of the sickest and most complicated babies are cared for on ECMO. Given that, it is imperative for aggressive survellience for long-term morbidity in survivors, particularly neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    View details for PubMedID 29305226

  • Improving quality in measuring time to initiation of CPR during in-hospital resuscitation. Resuscitation Siems, A. n., Tomaino, E. n., Watson, A. n., Spaeder, M. C., Su, L. n. 2017; 118: 15?20


    Time from the onset of "low or no flow" indicators of cardiac failure to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an important quality metric thought to improve the likelihood of survival and preservation of end organ function. We hypothesized that delays in initiation of chest compressions were under recognized during in-hospital resuscitation and aimed to develop a system which identifies the actual time of deterioration during cardiac events.Retrospective review on prospectively identified resuscitation records and monitor data were compared. Return of spontaneous circulation, survival, and changes in functional status of patients pre- and post-events with chest compressions were collected as outcome measures.Between October 2012 and April 2015, 59 events which met eligibility criteria occurred in either our pediatric cardiac or general pediatric intensive care units. The median time from event onset to initiation of chest compressions was 47s(s) (interquartile range (IQR) 28-80s) as assessed using monitor data, while the resuscitation record reported a median time of 0s (IQR 0-60s), reflecting the time from recognition to initiation of chest compressions. According to the resuscitation record, 81% vs. 63% of events achieved the quality standard of less than one minute depending on which review method was used (p=0.04).There is a significant difference between time of deterioration to initiation of chest compressions and the time of recognition to initiation of chest compressions. Resuscitation records should be modified to include more information about the actual timing of patient deterioration.

    View details for PubMedID 28648809

  • Incorporating Three-dimensional Printing into a Simulation-based Congenital Heart Disease and Critical Care Training Curriculum for Resident Physicians CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE Costello, J. P., Olivieri, L. J., Su, L., Krieger, A., Alfares, F., Thabit, O., Marshall, M., Yoo, S., Kim, P. C., Jonas, R. A., Nath, D. S. 2015; 10 (2): 185?90


    Although simulation-based education is now commonly utilized in medicine, its use in the instruction of congenital heart disease remains limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether heart models created with three-dimensional printing technology can be effectively incorporated into a simulation-based congenital heart disease and critical care training curriculum for pediatric resident physicians.Utilizing heart models created with a three-dimensional printer, pediatric residents participated in a 60-minute simulation seminar with three consecutive components: (1) didactic instruction on ventricular septal defect anatomy; (2) didactic/simulation-based instruction on echocardiographic imaging of ventricular septal defects and anatomical teaching/operative simulation of ventricular septal defect repair; (3) simulation-based instruction on postoperative critical care management of ventricular septal defects.Academic, free-standing, children's hospital with quaternary care referrals.Twenty-three pediatric resident physicians.Subjective, Likert-type questionnaires assessing knowledge acquisition, knowledge reporting, and structural conceptualization of ventricular septal defects.Three-dimensional printing technology was successfully utilized to create heart models of five common ventricular septal defect subtypes. After using these models in a simulation-based curriculum, pediatric residents were found to have improvement in the areas of knowledge acquisition (P = .0082), knowledge reporting (P = .01), and structural conceptualization (P < .0001) of ventricular septal defects, as well as improvement in the ability to describe and manage postoperative complications in ventricular septal defect patients in the critical care setting.The utilization of three-dimensional printing in a simulation-based congenital heart disease and critical care training curriculum is feasible and improves pediatric resident physicians' understanding of a common congenital heart abnormality.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/chd.12238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353692200021

    View details for PubMedID 25385353

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