Cell-type identity of the avian cochlea.
2021; 34 (12): 108900
Transcriptomic characterization of dying hair cells in the avian cochlea.
2021; 34 (12): 108902
In contrast to mammals, birds recover naturally from acquired hearing loss, which makes them an ideal model for inner ear regeneration research. Here, we present a validated single-cell RNA sequencing resource of the avian cochlea. We describe specific markers for three distinct types of sensory hair cells, including a previously unknown subgroup, which we call superior tall hair cells. We identify markers for the supporting cells associated with tall hair cells, which represent the facultative stem cells of the avian inner ear. Likewise, we present markers for supporting cells that are located below the short cochlear hair cells. We further infer spatial expression gradients of hair cell genes along the tonotopic axis of the cochlea. This resource advances neurobiology, comparative biology, and regenerative medicine by providing a basis for comparative studies with non-regenerating mammalian cochleae and for longitudinal studies of the regenerating avian cochlea.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108900
View details for PubMedID 33761346
ROS-Induced Activation of DNA Damage Responses Drives Senescence-Like State in Postmitotic Cochlear Cells: Implication for Hearing Preservation.
Sensory hair cells are prone to apoptosis caused by various drugs including aminoglycoside antibiotics. In mammals, this vulnerability results in permanent hearing loss because lost hair cells are not regenerated. Conversely, hair cells regenerate in birds, making the avian inner ear an exquisite model for studying ototoxicity and regeneration. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing and trajectory analysis on control and dying hair cells after aminoglycoside treatment. Interestingly, the two major subtypes of avian cochlear hair cells, tall and short hair cells, respond differently. Dying short hair cells show a noticeable transient upregulation of many more genes than tall hair cells. The most prominent gene group identified is associated with potassium ion conductances, suggesting distinct physiological differences. Moreover, the dynamic characterization of >15,000 genes expressed in tall and short avian hair cells during their apoptotic demise comprises a resource for further investigations toward mammalian hair cell protection and hair cell regeneration.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108902
View details for PubMedID 33761357
Reversible p53 inhibition prevents cisplatin ototoxicity without blocking chemotherapeutic efficacy.
EMBO molecular medicine
2017; 9 (1): 7-26
In our aging society, age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has become a major socioeconomic issue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be one of the main causal factors of age-related cochlear cell degeneration. We examined whether ROS-induced DNA damage response drives cochlear cell senescence and contributes to ARHL from the cellular up to the system level. Our results revealed that sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure initiated a DNA damage response illustrated by increased ?H2AX and 53BP1 expression and foci formation mainly in sensory hair cells, together with increased levels of p-Chk2 and p53. Interestingly, postmitotic cochlear cells exposed to H2O2 displayed key hallmarks of senescent cells, including dramatically increased levels of p21, p38, and p-p38 expression, concomitant with decreased p19 and BubR1 expression and positive senescence-associated ?-galactosidase labeling. Importantly, the synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 attenuated H2O2-induced DNA damage and senescence phenotypes in cochlear cells in vitro. Furthermore, systemic administration of EUK-207 reduced age-related loss of hearing and hair cell degeneration in senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. Altogether, these findings highlight that ROS-induced DNA damage responses drive cochlear cell senescence and contribute to accelerated ARHL. EUK-207 and likely other antioxidants with similar mechanisms of action could potentially postpone cochlear aging and prevent ARHL in humans.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12035-019-1493-6
View details for PubMedID 30693443
Impairment of Visual Function and Retinal ER Stress Activation in Wfs1-Deficient Mice
2014; 9 (5)
Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapy drug, despite its significant ototoxic side effects. To date, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unclear, and hearing preservation during cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients is lacking. We found activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway to be a major determinant of cisplatin ototoxicity. However, prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is hampered by opposite effects of ATM activation upon sensory hair cells: promoting both outer hair cell death and inner hair cell survival. Encouragingly, however, genetic or pharmacological ablation of p53 substantially attenuated cochlear cell apoptosis, thus preserving hearing. Importantly, systemic administration of a p53 inhibitor in mice bearing patient-derived triple-negative breast cancer protected auditory function, without compromising the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin. Altogether, these findings highlight a novel and effective strategy for hearing protection in cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.15252/emmm.201606230
View details for PubMedID 27794029
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5210089