Clinical Instructor, Radiation Oncology - Radiation Physics
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Purpose:Radiation dose delivered to targets located near the upper-abdomen or in the thorax are significantly affected by respiratory-motion. Relatively large-margins are commonly added to compensate for this motion, limiting radiation-dose-escalation. Internal-surrogates of target motion, such as a radiofrequency (RF) tracking system, i.e. Calypso® System, are used to overcome this challenge and improve normal-tissue sparing. RF tracking systems consist of implanting transponders in the vicinity of the tumor to be tracked using radiofrequency-waves. Unfortunately, although the manufacture provides a universal quality-assurance (QA) phantom, QA-phantoms specifically for lung-applications are limited, warranting the development of alternative solutions to fulfil the tests mandated by AAPM's TG142. Accordingly, our objective was to design and develop a motion-phantom to evaluate Calypso for lung-applications that allows the Calypso® Beacons to move in different directions to better simulate true lung-motion.Methods and Materials:A Calypso lung QA-phantom was designed, and 3D-printed. The design consists of three independent arms where the transponders were attached. A pinpoint-chamber with a buildup-cap was also incorporated. A 4-axis robotic arm was programmed to drive the motion-phantom to mimic breathing. After acquiring a four-dimensional-computed-tomography (4DCT) scan of the motion-phantom, treatment-plans were generated and delivered on a Varian TrueBeam® with Calypso capabilities. Stationary and gated-treatment plans were generated and delivered to determine the dosimetric difference between gated and non-gated treatments. Portal cine-images were acquired to determine the temporal-accuracy of delivery by calculating the difference between the observed versus expected transponders locations with the known speed of the transponders' motion.Results:Dosimetric accuracy is better than TG142 tolerance of 2%. Temporal accuracy is greater than, TG142 tolerance of 100ms for beam-on, but less than 100ms for beam-hold.Conclusions:The robotic QA-phantom designed and developed in this study provides an independent phantom for performing Calypso lung-QA for commissioning and acceptance testing of Calypso for lung treatments.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1361-6560/abebaa
View details for PubMedID 33657537
Purpose:Brain stereotactic-radiosurgery (SRS) treatments require multiple quality-assurance (QA) procedures to ensure accurate and precise treatment delivery. As single-isocenter multitarget SRS treatments become more popular, the quantification of off-axis accuracy of the linear-accelerator is crucial. In this study, a novel brain SRS integrated phantom was developed and validated to enable SRS QA with a single phantom to facilitate implementation of a frameless single-isocenter, multitarget SRS program. This phantom combines the independent verification of each positioning system, the Winston-Lutz, off-axis accuracy evaluation (i.e. off-axis Winston-Lutz), and the dosimetric accuracy utilizing both point-dose-measurements as well as film-measurement, without moving the phantom.Methods and Materials:A novel 3D-printed phantom, coinedOneIso, was designed with a movable insert which can switch between the Winston-Lutz test target and dose measurement without moving the phantom itself. For dose verification, eight brain SRS clinical-treatment-plans with 10MV Flattening-Filter-Free (FFF) beams were delivered on a Varian TrueBeam with a high-definition-multi-leaf-collimator (HD-MLC). Radiochromic film and pinpoint ion chamber comparison measurements were made between the OneIso and solid water (SW) phantom setups. For the off-axis Winston-Lutz measurements, a row of off-axis ball-bearings (BBs) was integrated into the OneIso. To quantify the spatial accuracy versus distance from isocenter, two-dimensional displacements were calculated between the planned and delivered BB locations relative to their respective MLC defined field border.Results:OneIso and the SW phantoms agree within 1%, for both film and point-dose measurements. OneIso identified a reduction in spatial accuracy further away from isocenter. Differences increased as distance from isocenter increased exceeding recommended SRS accuracy tolerances at 3-4cm away from isocenter.Conclusions:OneIso provides a streamlined, single-setup workflow for single-isocenter multitarget frameless linac-based SRS QA. Additionally, with the ability to quantify off-axis spatial-discrepancies, we can determine limitations on the maximum distance between targets to ensure a single-isocenter multitarget SRS program meets recommended guidelines.
View details for DOI 10.1088/1361-6560/ab8534
View details for PubMedID 32235050
PURPOSE: Various localization and positioning systems utilizing radiographic or nonradiographic methods have been developed to improve the accuracy of radiation treatment. Each quality assurance (QA) procedure requires its own phantom and is independent from each other, so the deviation between each system is unavailable. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate a single-integrated QA phantom for different localization and positioning systems.METHODS: The integrated phantom was designed in three-dimensional (3D) CAD software and 3D printed. The phantom was designed with laser alignment marks, a raised letter "S" on the anterior surface for optical surface monitoring system registration, a core for radiofrequency (RF) tracking system alignment, eight internal fiducials for image alignment, and an isocentric bearing for Winston-Lutz test. Tilt legs and rotational stage were designed for rotational verification of optical surface mapping system and RF tracking system, respectively. The phantom was scanned using a CT scanner and a QA plan was created. This prototype phantom was evaluated against established QA techniques.RESULTS: The QA result between the proposed procedure and established QA technique are 1.12 ± 0.31 and 1.14 ± 0.31 mm, respectively, for RF tracking system and 0.18 ± 0.06 and 0.18 ± 0.05 mm for Winston-Lutz test. There is no significant difference for the QA results between the established QA and proposed procedure (P > 0.05, t test). The accuracy of rotational verification for surface mapping system and RF tracking system are less than 0.5 and 1° compared the predefined value. The isocenter deviation of each location system is around l mm.CONCLUSION: We have designed and evaluated a novel-integrated phantom for radiographic and nonradiographic localization and positioning systems for radiotherapy. With this phantom, we will reduce the variation in measurements and simplify the QA procedures.
View details for PubMedID 29730884