COVID-19 transmission, vulnerability, persistence and nanotherapy: a review.
Environmental chemistry letters
Immunotherapeutics for Covid-19 and post vaccination surveillance.
2020; 10 (12): 527
End 2019,the zoonotic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), named COVID-19 for coronavirus disease 2019, is the third adaptation of a contagious virus following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in 2002, SARS-CoV, and the Middle East respiratory syndrome virus in 2012, MERS-CoV. COVID-19 is highly infectious and virulent compared to previous outbreaks. We review sources, contagious routes, preventive measures, pandemic, outbreak, epidemiology of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 from 2002 to 2020 using a Medline search. We discuss the chronology of the three coronaviruses, the vulnerability of healthcare workers, coronaviruses on surface and in wastewater, diagnostics and cures, and measures to prevent spreading.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10311-021-01229-4
View details for PubMedID 33846683
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a pandemic and named as novel coronavirus disease (nCOVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is different from other known viruses due to multiple mutations on the sites of nonstructural proteins (NSP) 2 and 3, and the varying nature of virulence between different persons. Immunotherapies such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies have a protective effect on the patients bringing them to the front of the line of potential treatments. The present review intends to cover the development of 20 different vaccine candidates categorized under live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. Formulation of these vaccine candidates by various companies in collaboration with global organizations and their status of clinical trials were addressed. On the other hand, various approaches for post-vaccination surveillance using nucleic acid and protein biomarkers imbued on suitable platforms were also highlighted to sum up the immune therapeutics for Covid-19.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s13205-020-02522-9
View details for PubMedID 33200061