STEP inhibition prevents Aβ-mediated damage in dendritic complexity and spine density in Alzheimer's disease.
Experimental brain research
Loss of dendritic spines and decline of cognitive function are hallmarks of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AD pathophysiology involves increased expression of a central nervous system-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase called STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase). STEP opposes the development of synaptic strengthening by dephosphorylating substrates, including GluN2B, Pyk2, and ERK1/2. Genetic reduction of STEP as well as pharmacological inhibition of STEP improve cognitive function and hippocampal memory in the 3×Tg-AD mouse model. Here, we show that the improved cognitive function is accompanied by an increase in synaptic connectivity in cell cultures as well as in the triple transgenic AD mouse model, further highlighting the potential of STEP inhibitors as a therapeutic agent.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00221-020-06028-x
View details for PubMedID 33420799
- A Hot Take on Social Media: Leveraging Digital Diversity as Students Underrepresented in Medicine. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2020; 95 (11): 1628–29
- Cutaneous Manifestations of COVID-19: A Preliminary Review. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2020
Loss of TrkB Signaling in Parvalbumin-Expressing Basket Cells Results in Network Activity Disruption and Abnormal Behavior
2018; 28 (10): 3399–3413
The GABAergic system is regulated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway, but the cell-intrinsic role of TrkB signaling in parvalbumin cortical interneuron development and function is unclear. We performed conditional ablation of the TrkB receptor in parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons to study whether postnatal loss of TrkB in parvalbumin cells affects their survival, connectivity, spontaneous and evoked neuronal activity and behavior. Using in vivo recordings of local field potentials, we found reduced gamma oscillations in the sensory cortex of PVcre+; TrkBF/F conditional knockout mice (TrkB cKO), along with increased firing of putative excitatory neurons. There was a significant downregulation in parvalbumin neuron number in cerebral and cerebellar cortices of TrkB cKO mice. In addition, inhibitory synaptic connections between basket cells and pyramidal neurons were profoundly reduced in the neocortex of TrkB cKO mice and there was a loss of cortical volume. TrkB cKO mice also showed profound hyperactivity, stereotypies, motor deficits and learning/memory defects. Our findings demonstrate that the targeting and/or synapse formation of PV-expressing basket cells with principal excitatory neurons require TrkB signaling in parvalbumin cells. Disruption of this signaling has major consequences for parvalbumin interneuron connectivity, network dynamics, cognitive and motor behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhx173
View details for Web of Science ID 000446091100001
View details for PubMedID 28968898
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6132287
Navigating Controversy: A Critical Element of Medical Education.
Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
2018; 93 (12): 1750
View details for PubMedID 30489297
STEP inhibition reverses behavioral, electrophysiologic, and synaptic abnormalities in Fmr1 KO mice
2018; 128: 43–53
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, with additional symptoms including attention deficit and hyperactivity, anxiety, impulsivity, and repetitive movements or actions. The majority of FXS cases are attributed to a CGG expansion that leads to transcriptional silencing and diminished expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA binding protein, regulates the synthesis of dendritically-translated mRNAs by stalling ribosomal translation. Loss of FMRP leads to increased translation of some of these mRNAs, including the CNS-specific tyrosine phosphatase STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase). Genetic reduction of STEP in Fmr1 KO mice have diminished audiogenic seizures and a reversal of social and non-social anxiety-related abnormalities. This study investigates whether a newly discovered STEP inhibitor (TC-2153) could attenuate the behavioral and synaptic abnormalities in Fmr1 KO mice. TC-2153 reversed audiogenic seizure incidences, reduced hyperactivity, normalized anxiety states, and increased sociability in Fmr1 KO mice. Moreover, TC-2153 reduced dendritic spine density and improved synaptic aberrations in Fmr1 KO neuronal cultures as well as in vivo. TC-2153 also reversed the mGluR-mediated exaggerated LTD in brain slices derived from Fmr1 KO mice. These studies suggest that STEP inhibition may have therapeutic benefit in FXS.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.09.026
View details for Web of Science ID 000418977200005
View details for PubMedID 28943283
Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function
Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington's chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2016/8136925
View details for Web of Science ID 000374853100001
View details for PubMedID 27190655
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4844879