- Anatomic and Clinical Pathology
- Clinical Pathology Chief Resident, 2018-2019
- Gynecologic Pathology Fellow, 2019-2020
- Molecular Genetic Pathology Fellow, 2020-2021
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Fumarate hydratase-deficient leiomyomas (dFH leiomyomas) often display atypical pathologic features yet exhibit a benign clinical course. Recent data suggest that dFH leiomyomas may be misclassified as smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential, a category that encompasses a heterogenous subgroup of uterine neoplasms with smooth muscle differentiation and atypical features that impart ambiguity regarding their expected clinical behavior. dFH leiomyomas can be seen in the context of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome or in the sporadic setting. In this retrospective study, we sought to examine the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of dFH leiomyomas in 48 tumors previously diagnosed as smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential from 38 patients. Of these 48 tumors, 3 (6.3%) occurring in 2 patients were found to be deficient for FH by immunohistochemistry, including 1 uterine and 2 extrauterine (abdominopelvic) tumors. The 3 tumors showed histologic features typical of dFH leiomyomas, including hemangiopericytoma-like vessels, edema, macronucleoli, and atypia. Neither patient developed recurrent leiomyomas or renal cell carcinoma, and both were alive without disease at last follow-up. Our data suggest that dFH leiomyomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential, even in the context of extrauterine disease. Identification of FH deficiency in these tumors supports their classification as dFH leiomyomas despite their atypical morphologic features and/or clinical presentation. Importantly, detection of dFH in these cases may identify women at increased risk for hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma who would benefit from genetic counseling and consideration for FH germline testing.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000797
View details for PubMedID 34108400
Uterine sarcomas with variable CD34 and S100 expression represent an emerging class of tumor in the female genital tract which commonly presents in the endocervix of premenopausal women. Initial molecular characterization identified NTRK1 and NTRK3 gene fusions as oncogenic drivers in these tumors; however, the repertoire of genetic alterations is likely more diverse given the recent discovery of PDGFB and RET gene fusions in similarly described tumors. Importantly, these fusion events lead to the aberrant activation of kinases that are potentially therapeutically targetable; therefore, recognizing this class of tumor becomes critical for initiating the molecular testing required for an accurate diagnosis and identification of clinically actionable fusions. Here, we report our institutional experience with 12 cases of uterine spindle cell sarcomas harboring kinase-related fusions. Patients ranged from 21 to 80 years old (median, 38?y) and presented either asymptomatically or with pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding. Eleven (92%; 11/12) tumors were localized to the cervix and 1 (8%; 1/12) tumor was localized in the anterior fundus of the uterine corpus. Tumors ranged in size from 1.5 to 15.0?cm (median, 6.0?cm) and were histologically characterized by a moderately cellular, infiltrative proliferation of spindle cells with features of benign gland entrapment, stromal collagen deposition, perivascular hyalinization, occasionally myxoid stroma, a lymphocytic infiltrate, occasional nuclear pseudoinclusions, and a pseudophyllodes architecture. RNA-sequencing identified NTRK1 (8/12), NTRK3 (1/12), and PDGFB (2/12) gene fusions, which have been previously implicated in this tumor class, as well as a novel FGFR1-TACC1 (1/12) fusion. All tumors in this cohort showed coexpression of CD34 and S100 by immunohistochemistry except for those tumors with PDGFB fusions which showed solely CD34 expression. Of the 10 surgically resected tumors with follow-up, outcomes best correlated with the stage of disease. One of 4 patients with stage IA tumors (1/4) had recurrences, half of the stage IB (2/4) tumors had recurrences and all of the stage IIB tumors (2/2) had recurrences and died of disease. Future studies are still required to better understand the spectrum of genetic alterations as well as evaluate the efficacy of targeted kinase inhibitors in this class of tumor.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001644
View details for PubMedID 33481389
In the female genital tract, rhabdomyosarcoma may occur in "pure" form or as a heterologous constituent of a biphasic neoplasm such as carcinosarcoma or adenosarcoma. Discriminating rhabdomyosarcoma from its histologic mimics relies on confirmation of skeletal muscle differentiation by morphology or immunohistochemistry (IHC), which can be challenging to interpret in some cases owing to limited expression. PAX7, a transcription factor expressed in mammalian muscle progenitor cells, has been reported in up to 86% of soft tissue rhabdomyosarcomas by IHC. To determine whether PAX7 IHC could augment current approaches to identify rhabdomyosarcoma in gynecologic malignancies, we assessed PAX7, myogenin, and MyoD1 IHC on whole tissue sections from 100 gynecologic tumors: 50 with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation and 50 with features mimicking rhabdomyosarcoma. PAX7 expression was present in 96% (48/50) of gynecologic tumors with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation and was absent in all rhabdomyosarcoma mimics; it was more diffusely expressed than myogenin in 16 cases and was positive in a greater percentage of tumor cells in 28 cases. PAX7 and myogenin were typically coexpressed, and no rhabdomyosarcoma exhibited complete absence of both markers; however, 2 myogenin-negative tumors were PAX7-postive. Morphologically, PAX7 localized to the nuclei of primitive-appearing cells, whereas myogenin was observed in maturing rhabdomyoblasts including strap cells. Our findings highlight the utility of PAX7 as a complementary diagnostic marker of rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in gynecologic tumors. PAX7 should be used in combination with other markers of skeletal muscle differentiation, namely myogenin, and may be particularly helpful in cases where myogenin and/or MyoD1 expression is limited.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PGP.0000000000000799
View details for PubMedID 34108399
Intracardiac paragangliomas most commonly arise from the left atrium and are often infiltrative and densely adherent to surrounding structures. Given their rarity, only scattered reports exist in the literature and standardized perioperative and surgical management is not well established. We describe a case of a 60-year-old woman with a mildly functioning intracardiac paraganglioma in which division of the superior vena cava improved exposure and enabled a complex limited resection. Further, we provide an overview of the diagnostic workup, perioperative medical management, surgical approach, and surveillance strategy in patients with these challenging tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11748-020-01503-2
View details for PubMedID 33074472
View details for Web of Science ID 000518328902353
View details for Web of Science ID 000518328902354
View details for Web of Science ID 000394467300566