Dilutional coagulopathy in pediatric scoliosis surgery: A single center report.
2018; 28 (11): 974?81
Children undergoing posterior spinal fusion experience high blood loss often necessitating transfusion. An appropriately activated coagulation system provides hemostasis during surgery, but pathologic dysregulation can cause progressive bleeding and increased transfusions. Despite receiving antifibrinolytics for clot stabilization, many patients still require transfusions.We sought to examine the association of dilutional coagulopathy with blood loss and blood transfusion in posterior spinal fusion for pediatric scoliosis patients.A retrospective, single institution study of children undergoing posterior spinal fusion >6 levels with a standardized, prospective anesthetic protocol utilizing antifibrinolytics. Blood loss was evaluated using a hematocrit-based calculation. To evaluate transfusions, a normalized Blood Product Transfusion calculation was developed. Factors associated with blood loss and blood transfusions were determined by univariate analysis and multivariate regression modeling with multicollinearity and mediation analysis.Patients received 73.7 mL/kg (standard deviation ±30.8) of fluid poor in coagulation factors. Estimated blood loss was 42.6 mL/kg (standard deviation ±18.0). There was a significant association between estimated blood loss and total fluids delivered (Spearman's rho = 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.33-0.65, P < 0.001). Factors significantly associated with normalized Blood Product Transfusion in this cohort included age, weight, scoliosis type, levels fused, total osteotomies, pelvic fixation, total fluid, maximum prothrombin time, and minimum fibrinogen. Regression modeling showed the best combination of variables for modeling normalized Blood Product Transfusion included patient weight, number of levels fused, total fluid administered, and maximum prothrombin time.Blood product transfusion remains a frustrating problem in pediatric scoliosis. Identifying and controlling dilutional coagulopathy in these patients may reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion.
View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.13488
View details for PubMedID 30295357
Characterization of pediatric golf cart injuries to guide injury prevention efforts.
The American journal of emergency medicine
2018; 36 (6): 1049?52
Golf cart injuries represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Characterization of the circumstances of these injuries can inform injury prevention efforts.This study retrospectively reviews a prospective trauma registry at a level-one pediatric trauma center for golf cart-related injuries in patients under 18years of age admitted to the hospital between 2008 and 2016.The 40 identified crashes were associated with 82 hospital days, 17 ICU days, and more than $1 million in hospital charges over the study period. The median hospital stay was 1.5days, and the median hospital charge was $20,489. Severe injuries with an Injury Severity Score of >15 were identified in 25% of patients, and moderate injuries with scores between nine and 15 were identified in an additional 30%. The most common injures were head and neck (60%) and external injuries to the body surface (52.5%). Only a single child was wearing a seatbelt, and the vast majority was not using any safety equipment. Children as young as nine years old were driving golf carts, and child drivers were associated with the cart overturning (p=0.007).Golf cart crashes were a source of substantial morbidity at a level-one trauma center. Increased safety measures, such as higher hip restraints, seatbelts, and front-wheel breaks could substantially increase the safety of golf carts. Increased regulation of driving age as well as driver education may also reduce these injuries.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajem.2018.03.002
View details for PubMedID 29530356
- Effect of Lipohypertrophy on Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes DIABETES CARE 2015; 38 (10): E166?E167
The impact of accelerometer use in exercise-associated hypoglycemia prevention in type 1 diabetes.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
2015; 9 (1): 80-85
Exercise-associated hypoglycemia is a common adverse event in people with type 1 diabetes. Previous in silico testing by our group demonstrated superior exercise-associated hypoglycemia mitigation when a predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) algorithm was augmented to incorporate activity data. The current study investigates the effectiveness of an accelerometer-augmented PLGS algorithm in an outpatient exercise protocol. Subjects with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in two structured soccer sessions, one utilizing the algorithm and the other using the subject's regular basal insulin rate. Each subject wore their own insulin pump and a Dexcom G4? Platinum continuous glucose monitor (CGM); subjects on-algorithm also wore a Zephyr BioHarness? 3 accelerometer. The algorithm utilized a Kalman filter with a 30-minute prediction horizon. Activity and CGM readings were manually entered into a spreadsheet and at five-minute intervals, the algorithm indicated whether the basal insulin infusion should be on or suspended; any changes were then implemented by study staff. The rate of hypoglycemia during and after exercise (until the following morning) was compared between groups. Eighteen subjects (mean age 13.4 ± 3.7 years) participated in two separate sessions 7-22 days apart. The difference in meter blood glucose levels between groups at each rest period did not achieve statistical significance at any time point. Hypoglycemia during the session was recorded in three on-algorithm subjects, compared to six off-algorithm subjects. In the postexercise monitoring period, hypoglycemia occurred in two subjects who were on-algorithm during the session and four subjects who were off-algorithm. The accelerometer-augmented algorithm failed to prevent exercise-associated hypoglycemia compared to subjects on their usual basal rates. A larger sample size may have achieved statistical significance. Further research involving an automated system, a larger sample size, and an algorithm design that favors longer periods of pump suspension is necessary.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1932296814551045
View details for PubMedID 25231116
The Impact of Accelerometer and Heart Rate Data on Hypoglycemia Mitigation in Type 1 Diabetes.
Journal of diabetes science and technology
2014; 8 (1): 64-69
Aerobic exercise can lower blood glucose levels and alter insulin sensitivity both during and several hours after exercise, creating challenges for a closed-loop artificial pancreas. Predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) algorithms are a first step toward an artificial pancreas, but few of these have been successfully applied to exercise. This study incorporates physical activity measurements from a combined accelerometer/heart rate monitor (HRM) to improve the performance of an existing PLGS algorithm at mitigating exercise-associated hypoglycemia in participants with type 1 diabetes. In all, 22 subjects with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy were provided a combined accelerometer/HRM and (if not already using one) a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), then instructed to go about their everyday lives while wearing the devices. After the monitoring period, each subject's insulin pump, CGM, and accelerometer/HRM were downloaded and the data were used to augment an existing PLGS algorithm to incorporate activity. Using a computer simulator, the accelerometer-augmented algorithm was compared to the HRM-augmented algorithm to determine which was most effective at mitigating hypoglycemia. Mean length of monitoring was 4.9 days. Across all subjects, 11 061 CGM readings were recorded during the monitoring period. In the simulator analysis, the PLGS algorithm reduced hypoglycemia by 62%, compared to 71% and 74% reductions for the HRM-augmented and accelerometer-augmented algorithms, respectively; combined accelerometer and HRM augmentation provided a 76% reduction. In a simulated setting, the accelerometer-augmented pump suspension algorithm decreases the incidence of exercise-related hypoglycemia by a meaningful amount compared to the PLGS algorithm alone. Results also failed to justify the additional user burden of a HRM.
View details for PubMedID 24876539