CT-less electron radiotherapy simulation and planning with a consumer 3D camera.
Journal of applied clinical medical physics
Locoregional and Distant Outcomes in Women With cT1-3N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Adjuvant Radiotherapy.
Clinical breast cancer
PURPOSE: Electron radiation therapy dose distributions are affected by irregular body surface contours. This study investigates the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) cameras to substitute for the treatment planning computerized tomography (CT) scan by capturing the body surfaces to be treated for accurate electron beam dosimetry.METHODS: Dosimetry was compared for six electron beam treatments to the nose, toe, eye, and scalp using full CT scan, CT scan with Hounsfield Unit (HU) overridden to water (mimic 3D camera cases), and flat-phantom techniques. Radiation dose was prescribed to a depth on the central axis per physician's order, and the monitor units (MUs) were calculated. The 3D camera spatial accuracy was evaluated by comparing the 3D surface of a head phantom captured by a 3D camera and that generated with the CT scan in the treatment planning system. A clinical case is presented, and MUs were calculated using the 3D camera body contour with HU overridden to water.RESULTS: Across six cases the average change in MUs between the full CT and the 3Dwater (CT scan with HU overridden to water) calculations was 1.3% with a standard deviation of 1.0%. The corresponding hotspots had a mean difference of 0.4% and a standard deviation of 1.9%. The 3D camera captured surface of a head phantom was found to have a 0.59mm standard deviation from the surface derived from the CT scan. In-vivo dose measurements (213±8cGy) agreed with the 3D-camera planned dose of 209±6cGy, compared to 192±6cGy for the flat-phantom calculation (same MUs).CONCLUSIONS: Electron beam dosimetry is affected by irregular body surfaces. 3D cameras can capture irregular body contours which allow accurate dosimetry of electron beam treatment as an alternative to costly CT scans with no extra exposure to radiation. Tools and workflow for clinical implementation are provided.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acm2.13283
View details for PubMedID 34042253
ONS Guidelines for Cancer Treatment-Related Radiodermatitis.
Oncology nursing forum
2020; 47 (6): 654?70
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) or supraclavicular radiation therapy (SCV RT) in women with cT1-3N1 breast cancer (BC) who became node negative (ypN0) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 485 women treated with NAC for BC between 2005 and 2019. Radiation treatment fields were reviewed in detail. Pathologic complete response (pCR) was defined as ypT0/Tis ypN0. Patients who had residual nodal disease were defined as ypN+. Those who achieved complete response in the lymph nodes but not in the breast were defined as ypT+ypN0.RESULTS: After excluding patients with cT4 and cN0 disease at diagnosis, a total of 185 patients with cT1-3N1 BC were included. Patients were more likely to receive PMRT if they had ypN+ disease (P < .001) and/or lymphovascular invasion (P=.03). Patients who underwent lumpectomy were more likely to receive SCV RT if they did not achieve pCR (P=.04) and/or if they had ypN+ disease (P=.01). The 5-year rates of locoregional recurrence (LRR) were 15% for all patients, 14% for patients who attained ypT+ypN0, and 5% for patients who achieved pCR. Of ypT+ypN0 patients (n=98), 53 received PMRT or SCV RT and 45 did not. For these patients, there were no differences in LRR based on whether a patient did or did not receive PMRT or SCV RT (P=.23).CONCLUSION: Recommendations for or against PMRT or SCV RT after NAC vary based on final pathologic response. We await the results of ongoing randomized clinical trials to help guide clinical decision making in this context.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clbc.2021.02.008
View details for PubMedID 33766533
Representation of Women Among Invited Speakers at Medical Specialty Conferences.
Journal of women's health (2002)
PURPOSE: Radiodermatitis is a side effect of radiation therapy. Evidence-based interventions to minimize severity or delay progression are important for clinical care. This guideline intends to support individuals with cancer, clinicians, and others in decisions regarding radiodermatitis treatment.METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: A panel of healthcare professionals with patient representation was convened to develop a national clinical practice guideline for the management of radiodermatitis. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine criteria for trustworthy guidelines were followed. The Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool was used, and certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. A quantitative and narrative synthesis of the evidence was completed.FINDINGS: The panel agreed on eight recommendations and made a conditional recommendation for deodorant/antiperspirant. Aloe vera and oral curcumin had knowledge gaps and were recommended only in the context of a clinical trial. The panel suggested against emu oil, calendula, and nonsteroidal interventions.IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: This guideline summarizes evidence-based interventions for the management of radiodermatitis to guide clinical care.SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL CAN BE FOUND AT&NBSP;HTTPS: //bit.ly/2GEwJtT.
View details for DOI 10.1188/20.ONF.654-670
View details for PubMedID 33063779
Observe, and Keep Chemotherapy Up the Sleeve
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS
2018; 100 (3): 550
Treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with Y-90-CYT-356 monoclonal antibody
CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
1996; 2 (8): 1289-1297
Background: Gender-related differences have been found among invited speakers in select professional and medical societies. We examined whether similar disparities existed among keynote speakers, plenary speakers, and invited lecturers in a broad range of medical specialty conferences from 2013 to 2017. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 27 U.S. medical specialty conferences for which data were available on plenary speakers, keynote speakers, and/or invited lecturers. For each speaker, gender and degree(s) were determined. Fisher's exact test was performed to compare proportions of women among speakers to Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) physician workforce data on gender distribution. Results: In aggregate, we identified 246 women among 984 speakers, significantly lower than expected when compared with 2015 AAMC data (25.0% vs. 34.0%; p<0.00001). Compared with AAMC data reported in 2013, 2015, and 2017, women were significantly underrepresented in 2013 (p=0.0064) and 2015 (p=0.00004). In 2017, the proportion of women among invited speakers trended lower than AAMC active women physicians but did not reach significance (p=0.309). Analysis of individual conference data stratified by year indicated that, while the representation of women among all speakers improved between 2015 and 2017, the representation of women among keynote speakers, plenary speakers, and invited lectureships was variable (including zero levels some years during the study period) and remained lower than expected as compared with workforce data for specific medical specialties. Conclusions: Evaluating for and improving disparities is recommended to ensure gender equity among invited speakers across all medical specialty conferences.
View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2019.7723
View details for PubMedID 31687866
Yttrium-90-labeled anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy of recurrent B-cell lymphoma
CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
1996; 2 (3): 457-470
A Phase I dose-escalation study using 90Y-CYT-356 monoclonal antibody was performed in 12 patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. Biodistribution studies using 111In-CYT-356 were performed 1 week before 90Y-CYT-356 administration. Of the 12 patients, 58% had at least one site of disease imaged after administration of 111In-CYT-356. The dose of 90Y ranged from 1.83-12 mCi/m2. Both 111In and 90Y-CYT-356 were tolerated well, without significant nonhematological toxicity. Myelosuppression was the dose-limiting toxicity and occurred at dose levels of 4.5-12 mCi/m2. Of the patients receiving =9 mCi/m2, 55% had grade 1 or 2 leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia. Two of three patients treated with 12 mCi/m2 experienced grade 3 thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. One patient treated with 12 mCi/m2 had grade 4 neutropenia. The maximum tolerated dose of 90Y-CYT-356 was 9 mCi/m2. Only one patient developed a human anti-mouse antibody 4 weeks after treatment. No patient attained a complete or partial response based on prostate-specific antigen and/or radiological criteria. Three patients had transient subjective improvement in the symptomatology of their disease. In addition, patients treated with 12 mCi/m2 of 90Y-CYT-356 had a slightly longer freedom from disease progression than patients treated with doses of 90Y-CYT-356 =9 mCi/m2.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VB19900006
View details for PubMedID 9816299
Treatment of cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma with chimeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody
1996; 87 (3): 893-899
A Phase I/II dose escalation study of 90Y-murine anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in patients with recurrent B-cell lymphoma was performed. The primary objectives of the study were: (a) to determine the effect of the preinfusion of unlabeled anti-CD20 mAb on the biodistribution of 111In-anti-CD20 mAb; (b) to determine the maximal tolerated dose of 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb that does not require bone marrow transplantation; and (c) to evaluate the safety and antitumor effect of 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb in patients with recurrent B-cell lymphoma. Eighteen patients with relapsed low- or intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated. Biodistribution studies with 111In-anti-CD20 mAb were performed prior to therapy. Groups of three or four patients were treated at dose levels of approximately 13.5, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mCi 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb. Three patients were retreated at the 40-mCi dose level. The use of unlabeled antibody affected the biodistribution favorably. Nonhematological toxicity was minimal. The only significant toxicity was myelosuppression. The overall response rate following a single dose of 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb therapy was 72%, with six complete responses and seven partial responses and freedom from progression of 3-29+ months following treatment. Radioimmunotherapy with =50 mCi 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb resulted in minimal nonhematological toxicity and durable clinical responses in patients with recurrent B-cell lymphoma. Doses of =40 mCi 90Y-anti-CD20 mAb were not myeloablative.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TY62000004
View details for PubMedID 9816191
EFFECT OF FILGRASTIM (G-CSF) IN HODGKINS-DISEASE PATIENTS TREATED WITH RADIATION
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS
1994; 28 (2): 445-450
Chimeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody was administered intravenously as a single dose to eight patients with mycosis fungoides. The dose was escalated throughout the study between patients groups, and individual patients received 50, 100, or 200 mg per dose. Seven of eight patients responded to treatment with an average freedom from progression of 25 weeks (range, 6 to 52 weeks). The treatment was well tolerated, and there was no clinical evidence of immunosuppression. Following treatment, there was significant suppression of peripheral blood CD4 counts in all patients for 1 to 22+ weeks. Only one patient made a very low titer human antichimeric antibody response. All but two patients made primary antibody and T-cell proliferative responses to a foreign antigen administered 24 hours after antibody infusion. However, there was generally marked, but temporary suppression of T-cell proliferative responses in vitro to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), tetanus toxoid, and normal donor lymphocytes. We conclude that at the dose levels studied, this antibody (1) had clinical efficacy against mycosis fungoides; (2) was well tolerated; (3) had a low level of immunogenicity; (4) decreased T-cell proliferative responses in vitro, and (5) did not induce tolerance to a foreign antigen.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996TT48400008
View details for PubMedID 8562959
To evaluate the effect of filgrastim (recombinant human G-CSF) on radiation-induced neutropenia in a well defined, homogenous patient population.Seven patients who were to receive large field subdiaphragmatic irradiation after thoracic "mantle" fields for treatment of Hodgkin's disease entered this study. They received daily subcutaneous (SC) injections of filgrastim during subdiaphragmatic irradiation. Total white blood cell (WBC) and absolute neutrophil cell (ANC) counts were measured and compared to a historical series of patients, and hematological toxicity was assessed. The endpoints of the study were nadir WBC and ANC counts and time to WBC and ANC recovery.Compared to the historical series, filgrastim significantly increased the WBC and ANC throughout the period of subdiaphragmatic irradiation. Nadir WBC (5.98 +/- 1.24/mm3) and ANC (4.71 +/- 1.07/mm3) in the Filgrastim group were approximately two times those of the historical series (3.32 +/- 1.06/mm3 and 2.39 +/- 0.97/mm3 respectively; p < 0.002). Nadir platelet counts were not affected by filgrastim therapy. Three of seven patients reported mild musculoskeletal pain, but there was no other apparent toxicity.Compared to the historical series, filgrastim therapy significantly increased WBC and ANC during extended field radiation therapy and was well tolerated. It may be clinically useful in other groups of patients who are likely to develop profound neutropenia during large field irradiation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994MP98100015
View details for PubMedID 7506247