Pulling the goalie: What the United States and the world can learn from Canada about growing home dialysis.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Systematic Review of Early Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
Kidney international reports
The Use of Virtual Physician Mentoring to Enhance Home Dialysis Knowledge and Uptake.
Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
Introduction: The effects of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic in particular affect those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who commonly have defects in humoral and cellular immunity, and the efficacy of vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is uncertain.Methods: To inform public health and clinical practice, we synthesized published studies and preprints evaluating surrogate measures of immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with CKD including those receiving dialysis or with a kidney transplant.Results: We found 35 studies (28 published, 7 preprints), sample size from 23 to 1140 patients, and follow-up from one week to 1 month after vaccination. 17 of the 35 studies enrolled a control group. In the 22 studies of patients receiving dialysis, the development of antibodies was observed in 18 to 53% after one dose, and in 70 to 96% after two doses of mRNA vaccine. In the 14 studies of transplant recipients, 3% to 59% mounted detectable humoral or cellular responses after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. After vaccination, there are a few reported cases of relapse or de novo glomerulonephritis, and acute transplant rejection suggesting ongoing surveillance is important.Conclusion: Studies are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in these populations. Rigorous surveillance for long-term adverse effects in patients with autoimmune disease and transplant recipients is required. For transplant recipients and those with suboptimal immune responses, alternate vaccination platforms and strategies should be considered. As additional data arise, the NephJC COVID-19 page will be updated (http://www.nephjc.com/news/covid-vaccine).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ekir.2021.06.027
View details for PubMedID 34250319
Peritoneal Dialysis Following Left Ventricular Assist Device Placement and Kidney Recovery: A Case Report
2021; 3 (3): 438-441
Self-care training using the Tablo hemodialysis system.
Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
Home dialysis therapies are flexible kidney replacement strategies with documented clinical benefits. While the incidence of end-stage kidney disease continues to increase globally, the use of home dialysis remains low in most developed countries. Multiple barriers to providing home dialysis have been noted in the published literature. Amongst known challenges, gaps in clinician knowledge are potentially addressable with a focused education strategy. Recent national surveys in the United States and Australia have highlighted the need for enhanced home dialysis knowledge especially among nephrologists who have recently completed training. Traditional in-person continuing professional educational programs have had modest success in promoting home dialysis and are limited by scale and the present global COVID-19 pandemic. We hypothesize that the use of a "Hub and Spoke" model of virtual home dialysis mentorship for nephrologists based on project ECHO would support home dialysis growth. We review the home dialysis literature, known educational gaps and plausible educational interventions to address current limitations in physician education. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1111/nep.13867
View details for PubMedID 33634548
The Peritoneal Dialysis Transfer Set Replacement Procedure.
Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
; 47 (4): 343?46
INTRODUCTION: Recently published results of the investigational device exemption (IDE) trial using the Tablo hemodialysis system confirmed its safety and efficacy for home dialysis. This manuscript reports additional data from the Tablo IDE study on the training time required to be competent in self-care, the degree of dependence on health care workers and caregivers after training was complete, and participants' assessment of the ease-of-use of Tablo.METHODS: We collected data on the time required to set up concentrates and the Tablo cartridge prior to treatment initiation. We asked participants to rate system setup, treatment, and takedown on a Likert scale from 1 (very difficult) to 5 (very simple) and if they had required any assistance with any aspect of treatment over the prior 7days. In a subgroup of 15 participants, we recorded the number of training sessions required to be deemed competent to do self-care dialysis.FINDINGS: Eighteen men and 10 women with a mean age of 52.6years completed the study. Thirteen had previous self-care experience using a different dialysis system. Mean set up times for the concentrates and cartridge were 1.1 and 10.0minutes, respectively. Participants with or without previous self-care experience had similar set-up times. The mean ease-of-use score was 4.5 or higher on a scale from 1 to 5 during the in-home phase. Sixty-five percent required no assistance at home and on average required fewer than four training sessions to be competent in managing their treatments. Results were similar for participants with or without previous self-care experience.CONCLUSIONS: Participants in the Tablo IDE trial were able to quickly learn and manage hemodialysis treatments in the home, found Tablo easy to use, and were generally independent in performing hemodialysis.
View details for DOI 10.1111/hdi.12890
View details for PubMedID 33047477
Outcomes Among Patients With Left Ventricular Assist Devices Receiving Maintenance Outpatient Hemodialysis: A Case Series.
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Peritoneal dialysis transfer sets (extension lines) are replaced every six to nine months to minimize peritoneal dialysis catheter complications. The aim of this study was to compare a revised non-bag transfer set exchange procedure with the standard bag exchange procedure on nursing time, costs, and safety. Thirty-three people were randomized to two groups - a standard bag exchange procedure group (n = 16) and a non-bag transfer set exchange procedure group (n = 17). The standard bag exchange procedure took a median of 32 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 25 to 38 minutes) compared to the non-bag transfer set exchange procedure of 6 minutes (IQR 4 to 8 minutes) (p Ò 0.0001). There was one episode of peritonitis in each group within the 72-hour follow-up period. The average cost of the non-bag transfer set exchange procedure was $24.54 lower, a 37% cost reduction. This study has shown the revised non-bag transfer set replacement procedure appears to be safe, consume less participant and staff time, and decreases costs.
View details for PubMedID 32830940
Myelin bodies in LMX1B-associated nephropathy: potential for misdiagnosis.
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: The incidence of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation as destination therapy for heart failure is increasing and kidney failure requiring maintenance hemodialysis is a common complication. As little is known about the safety or efficacy of outpatient hemodialysis among patients with LVADs, this study sought to describe their clinical course.STUDY DESIGN: Case series of patients with a LVAD undergoing maintenance outpatient hemodialysis whose clinical data were obtained from an electronic medical record.SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adults who received an LVAD, survived to hospital discharge, and were subsequently treated with maintenance hemodialysis by a non-profit dialysis provider between 2011 and 2019.RESULTS: Eleven patients were included. Six had a known prior history of chronic kidney disease. Patients underwent outpatient hemodialysis for a mean duration of 165.2 days (range 31-542) during which they were treated with 544 total dialysis sessions. Six of these sessions were stopped early due to dialysis-related adverse events (1.1%). Over 80% of follow-up time was spent out of hospital, however, 54.5% of patients were rehospitalized within one month of starting outpatient hemodialysis. The most common reason for hospitalization was infection (32.1%), followed by hypervolemia (14.3%), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) (10.7%). Four patients recovered kidney function, one underwent combined heart and kidney transplantation, two continued treatment, two died, and two were lost to follow-up.LIMITATIONS: Retrospective design, small number of cases, and lack of complete follow-up data.CONCLUSIONS: Approximately half of the patients with complete follow-up either recovered kidney function or underwent combined heart and kidney transplantation. This case series demonstrates that outpatient hemodialysis centers, in partnership with LVAD treatment teams, can successfully provide hemodialysis to patients on LVAD support.
View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.04.018
View details for PubMedID 32711070
Public policy and programs - Missing links in growing home dialysis in the United States.
Seminars in dialysis
BACKGROUND: Myelin figures, or zebra bodies, seen on electron microscopy were historically considered pathognomonic of Fabry disease, a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency and associated with X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. More recently, iatrogenic phospholipidosis has emerged as an important alternate cause of myelin figures in the kidney.METHODS: We report two families with autosomal dominant nephropathy presenting with proteinuria and microscopic hematuria, and the kidney biopsies were notable for the presence of myelin figures and zebra bodies.RESULTS: Laboratory and genetic work-up for Fabry disease was negative. Genetic testing in both families revealed the same heterozygous missense mutation in LMX1B (C.737G>A, p.Arg246Gln). LMX1B mutations are known to cause nail-patella syndrome, featuring dysplastic nails and patella with or without nephropathy, as well as isolated LMX1B-associated nephropathy in the absence of extrarenal manifestations.CONCLUSIONS: LMX1B mutation-associated nephropathy should be considered in hereditary cases of proteinuria and/or hematuria, even in the absence of unique glomerular basement membrane changes indicative of nail-patella syndrome. In addition, LMX1B mutation should be included in the differential diagnosis of myelin figures and zebra bodies on kidney biopsy, so as to avoid a misdiagnosis.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00467-020-04564-w
View details for PubMedID 32356190
Update and review of renal artery stenosis.
Disease-a-month : DM
Use of a gentamicin-citrate lock leads to lower catheter-related bloodstream infection rates and reduced cost of care in hemodialysis patients.
Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) require dialysis or a kidney transplant for survival and over 760 000 patients now benefit from these therapies in the United States. Dialysis in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s was often done in the home. After the advent of Medicare coverage for ESKD in 1972 and the subsequent easier access to center based hemodialysis, the use of home modalities dramatically declined. This stands in contrast to home dialysis uptake in other industrialized healthcare systems where both peritoneal dialysis and home hemodialysis are more frequently used. Characteristics unique to the US healthcare system as well as the cultures of providers (physicians and dialysis providers) and recipients of ESKD care are hypothesized as the main reasons for observed differences in home dialysis use. To address these issues, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have recently proposed new payment programs under an Executive Order from the President of the United States, with the explicit goal of increasing the number of patients using home dialysis. This perspective outlines policy opportunities and programs with a proven track record of home dialysis growth in other countries or hypothesized promise based on identified barriers and needs.
View details for DOI 10.1111/sdi.12850
View details for PubMedID 31943408
Safety and efficacy of the Tablo hemodialysis system for in-center and home hemodialysis.
Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
Central venous catheters (CVC) are a major contributor to infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Gentamicin-citrate (GC) lock is used as standard of care at centers belonging to a mid-size dialysis organization. Four outpatient HD centers acquired by the organization continued to use heparin for catheter locks for a period of time before converting to the provider's standard of using GC lock.In this retrospective observational study, we included patients receiving HD by CVC at these four centers. We report rates of CVC-related bloodstream infections (CVC-BSI) during the heparin lock and the GC lock periods; crude rate ratios and adjusted rate ratios using Cox survival analyses adjusting for potential confounders; microbiology patterns; safety signals (gentamicin resistance, hospitalizations and deaths); and financial impact on payer.A total of 220 and 281 patients used tunneled CVCs, accounting for 25,245 and 44,550 catheter days in the heparin and the GC lock periods, respectively. CVC-BSI event rates were 66% lower in the GC lock period (CVC-BSI event rate: 0.20 per 1000 catheter-days) than the heparin lock period (rate: 0.59 per 1000 catheter days); rate ratio 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78, P = 0.01). In the fully adjusted multivariable Cox model, use of GC lock was associated with 70% reduction in CVC-BSI events (HR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.72, P = 0.01). No increased risk of gentamicin resistance, hospitalizations, or death associated with use of GC lock were observed. Use of GC lock was associated with an estimated saving of $1533 (95% CI: $259-$4882) per patient per year.Use of GC lock led to significant reductions in CVC-BSIs with no signal for harm, and is associated with significant cost savings in dialysis care.
View details for DOI 10.1111/hdi.12880
View details for PubMedID 33006269
The effect of blood flow rate on dialysis recovery time in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: A prospective, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial
2019; 23 (2): 223?29
Timing of initiation of dialysis: time for a new direction?
CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION
2012; 21 (3): 329-333
INTRODUCTION: Home hemodialysis remains underutilized despite observational data indicating more favorable outcomes with home compared with in-center hemodialysis. The Tablo Hemodialysis system is designed to be easy to learn and use and to facilitate adoption of home hemodialysis. The objective of the current investigational device exemption (IDE) study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Tablo managed in-center by health care professionals and in-home by patients and/or caregivers.METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, open-label, crossover trial comparing in-center and in-home hemodialysis using Tablo. There were 4 treatment periods during which hemodialysis was prescribed 4 times per week: 1-week Run-In, 8-week In-Center, 4-week Transition, and 8-week In-Home. The primary efficacy endpoint was weekly standard Kt/Vurea ?2.1. The secondary efficacy endpoint was delivery of ultrafiltration (UF) within 10% of prescribed UF. We collected safety and usability data.FINDINGS: Thirty participants enrolled and 28 completed all trial periods. Adherence to the protocol requirement of 4 treatments per week was 96% in-center and 99% in-home. The average prescribed and delivered session lengths were 3.4hours for both the In-Center and the In-Home periods. The primary efficacy endpoint for the intention-to-treat cohort was achieved in 199/200 (99.5%) of measurements during the In-Center period and 168/171 (98.3%) In-Home. The average weekly standard Kt/Vurea was 2.8 in both periods. The secondary efficacy UF endpoint was achieved in the ITT cohort in 94% in both in-center and in-home. Two prespecified adverse events (AEs) occurred during the In-Center period and 6 in the In-Home period. None of the AEs were deemed by investigators as related to Tablo. The median resolution time of alarms was 8seconds in-center and 5seconds in-home.CONCLUSION: Primary and secondary efficacy and safety endpoints were achieved during both In-Center and In-Home trial periods. This study confirms that Tablo is safe and effective for home hemodialysis use.
View details for DOI 10.1111/hdi.12795
View details for PubMedID 31697042
Reversible hepatic and lipid abnormalities with nonprescription anabolic-androgenic steroid use in 2 HIV-infected men
CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2006; 42 (1): 151-152
The past 15 years have seen tremendous growth in the initiation of dialysis at higher levels of kidney function in the setting of mixed evidence and at great societal economic cost. We review recent data on the early dialysis initiation trend, the clinical and economic impact of early dialysis initiation and the future implications for the management of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).The percentage of patients who initiate dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above 10 ?ml/min/1.73m(2) is now greater than 50%, including 20% who initiate with an eGFR above 15 ml/min/1.73m(2). The drivers behind these findings are probably diverse but recent literature does not seem to support a higher symptom burden among the ageing CKD population as the major cause. The Initiating Dialysis Early And Late (IDEAL) trial provides guidance on the safety of waiting for symptoms or lower levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate prior to beginning dialysis. In addition, economic analyses based on the IDEAL and US Renal Data System findings suggest that significant cost savings could be achieved by reversing the early initiation trend.These findings should help clinicians and policy makers looking to rein in costs while maintaining the quality of CKD care.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MNH.0b013e328351c244
View details for Web of Science ID 000302769500014
View details for PubMedID 22388556
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3458516