All Publications

  • Molecular Classification of Endometrial Carcinomas with Long-Term Follow-up Hammer, P., Albro, J., Squires, C., Peters-Schulze, G., Sharp, B., Charu, V., Cessna, M., Howitt, B. SPRINGERNATURE. 2021: 691–93
  • 100 Years of the Pathology Medical Student Fellowship: Impacts on Undergraduate Education and Career Choices Hammer, P., Ireland, K., Houghton, D., Jaggers, A., Coleman, A., Snir, O., Troxell, M., Andeen, N. SPRINGERNATURE. 2021: 332–33
  • The utility and challenges of histopathologic evaluation in the diagnosis of nonmalignant skin ulcers. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society Hammer, P. n., Latour, E. n., Bohnett, M. C., McKenzie, F. n., Korcheva, V. B., Mengden, S. n., White, K. P., Ortega-Loayza, A. G. 2020; 28 (2): 219-223


    Histopathologic evaluation of cutaneous ulcers is indicated when the clinical diagnosis is unclear or when ulcers have not responded to standard of care. Many nonmalignant skin ulcers lack specific histologic findings on biopsy and pose a diagnostic challenge. While the usefulness of skin biopsies to diagnose underlying malignancy in ulcerated lesions has been demonstrated in previous studies, their utility in the diagnosis of ulcers of other etiologies has not been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of 45 nonmalignant ulcer biopsies in a 3-year period to compare the histologic diagnosis with the final diagnosis. Additionally, we assessed the diagnostic concordance among three blinded dermatopathologists when reviewing these cases. The leading histologic diagnosis from each of the three observers agreed with the final clinical diagnosis, on average, for 29.6% of the cases (average pairwise kappa = 0.15). Inflammatory ulcers had the lowest concordance between the observers and final diagnosis with an average of 26.0% of cases (average pairwise kappa = 0.06). The observers agreed with each other for 35.6% of the cases (Fleiss' kappa = 0.32). The highest agreement among observers was in the vascular/vasculopathic category (50%, Fleiss' kappa = 0.44). Our results indicate that skin biopsies alone are useful in the evaluation of nonmalignant ulcers to rule out other conditions (e.g. neoplasm) but frequently not sufficient to establish a definitive diagnosis. Additional clinicopathologic correlation is necessary in the final assessment of nonmalignant ulcers to determine the diagnosis. Future research endeavors should explore alternative approaches to more efficiently diagnose nonmalignant skin ulcers.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/wrr.12780

    View details for PubMedID 31705777

  • Nipple leiomyoma: A rare neoplasm with a broad spectrum of histologic appearances. Journal of cutaneous pathology Hammer, P. n., White, K. n., Mengden, S. n., Korcheva, V. n., Raess, P. W. 2019; 46 (5): 343-346


    Cutaneous leiomyomas are rare benign smooth-muscle tumors. These lesions are distinguished based on their cell of origin and are subclassified as pilar leiomyoma, angioleiomyoma, and genital-type leiomyoma. Nipple leiomyoma is the least common genital-type leiomyoma, arising from the dartoic muscle cell of the nipple. Histologic examination of the lesion is necessary for definitive diagnosis, and these uncommon tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge. We describe herein a series of six nipple leiomyomas with a spectrum of histologic appearances.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cup.13423

    View details for PubMedID 30663114

  • Characterisation and diagnosis of ulcers in inpatient dermatology consultation services: A multi-centre study. International wound journal Haynes, D. n., Hammer, P. n., Malachowski, S. J., Kaffenberger, B. n., Yi, J. S., Vera, N. n., Calhoun, C. n., Shinohara, M. M., Seminario-Vidal, L. n., Trinidad, J. C., Keller, J. J., Ortega-Loayza, A. G. 2019; 16 (6): 1440-1444


    Accurate and prompt diagnosis of skin ulcers is critical to optimise management; however, studies in hospitalised patients are limited. This retrospective review of dermatologic consultations included 272 inpatients with skin ulcers between July 2015 and July 2018 in four U.S. academic hospitals. The median age was 54 years and 45% were male. In 49.3% of the patients, skin ulcers were considered the primary reason for admission. Ulcers of 62% were chronic and 49.6% were located on the lower extremities. Pyoderma gangrenosum (17.3%), infection (12.5%), and exogenous causes (11.8%) were the leading aetiologies; 12% remained diagnostically inconclusive after consultation. Diagnostic agreements pre-dermatology and post-dermatology consult ranged from 0.104 (n = 77, 95% CI 0.051-0.194) to 0.553 (n = 76, 95% CI 0.440-0.659), indicating poor-modest agreement. This study highlights the diagnostic complexity and relative incidences of skin ulcers in the inpatient setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/iwj.13211

    View details for PubMedID 31475449

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