Interventional Pulmonologist Perspective: Treatment of Malignant Pleural Effusion
CURRENT TREATMENT OPTIONS IN ONCOLOGY
2014; 15 (4): 625-643
Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
2006; 339 (1): 59-64
The management of known malignant pleural effusions focuses around the initial thoracentesis and subsequent objective and subjective findings. A completely reexpanded lung after fluid removal and with symptomatic improvement predicts successful pleurodesis. Pleurodesis method depends on center expertise as well as patient preference. Medical thoracoscopy does not require the operating room setting and is performed on the spontaneously breathing patient with similar success rate to surgical thoracoscopy in the appropriately selected patients. However, it is not widely available. Talc insufflation is preferred for even distribution of sprayed particles to pleural surfaces. Most often, patients can be discharged home within 24 to 48 hours after continuous chest tube suction. Indwelling pleural catheter has become popular given the ease of insertion and patient centered home drainage. Coordinated care with good patient and family education and support is paramount to maximizing the beneficial potential of the catheter. Complications are minimal, and catheters are easily removed if patients can no longer benefit from drainage, or if pleurodesis has occurred. In the setting of trapped lung as a result of visceral pleura encasement from tumor, indwelling catheter can still be useful if the patient improves with thoracentesis. However, if no subjective improvement is seen after thoracentesis for trapped lung, then no procedure is recommended and other modes of palliation should be sought.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11864-014-0312-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000344532800009
Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.10.187
View details for PubMedID 16297860