Humanized Mouse Models for the Advancement of Innate Lymphoid Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies.
Frontiers in immunology
2021; 12: 648580
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a branch of the immune system that consists of diverse circulating and tissue-resident cells, which carry out functions including homeostasis and antitumor immunity. The development and behavior of human natural killer (NK) cells and other ILCs in the context of cancer is still incompletely understood. Since NK cells and Group 1 and 2 ILCs are known to be important for mediating antitumor immune responses, a clearer understanding of these processes is critical for improving cancer treatments and understanding tumor immunology as a whole. Unfortunately, there are some major differences in ILC differentiation and effector function pathways between humans and mice. To this end, mice bearing patient-derived xenografts or human cell line-derived tumors alongside human genes or human immune cells represent an excellent tool for studying these pathways in vivo. Recent advancements in humanized mice enable unparalleled insights into complex tumor-ILC interactions. In this review, we discuss ILC behavior in the context of cancer, the humanized mouse models that are most commonly employed in cancer research and their optimization for studying ILCs, current approaches to manipulating human ILCs for antitumor activity, and the relative utility of various mouse models for the development and assessment of these ILC-related immunotherapies.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2021.648580
View details for PubMedID 33968039
Regulation of KRAS4A/B splicing in cancer stem cells by the RBM39 splicing complex
View details for DOI 10.1101/646125
DGAT1-Dependent Lipid Droplet Biogenesis Protects Mitochondrial Function during Starvation-Induced Autophagy.
2017; 42 (1): 9?21.e5
Lipid droplets (LDs) provide an "on-demand" source of fatty acids (FAs) that can be mobilized in response to fluctuations in nutrient abundance. Surprisingly, the amount of LDs increases during prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation. Why cells store FAs in LDs during an energy crisis is unknown. Our data demonstrate that mTORC1-regulated autophagy is necessary and sufficient for starvation-induced LD biogenesis. The ER-resident diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) selectively channels autophagy-liberated FAs into new, clustered LDs that are in close proximity to mitochondria and are lipolytically degraded. However, LDs are not required for FA delivery to mitochondria but instead function to prevent acylcarnitine accumulation and lipotoxic dysregulation of mitochondria. Our data support a model in which LDs provide a lipid buffering system that sequesters FAs released during the autophagic degradation of membranous organelles, reducing lipotoxicity. These findings reveal an unrecognized aspect of the cellular adaptive response to starvation, mediated by LDs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.06.003
View details for PubMedID 28697336
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5553613