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Dr. Dung H Nguyen is currently the Director of Breast Reconstruction at the Stanford Women?s Cancer Center and the Director of Adult Plastics Clinic at Stanford Healthcare. She graduated with a Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry and highest academic honor and distinction from U.C. Davis. She earned a Pharm.D degree from U.C.S.F. School of Pharmacy and a MD degree from U.C.S.D. She then did a residency in general surgery and a residency in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the University of Southern California (USC) Medical Center. She further completed a fellowship in microsurgery from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan, one of the largest reconstructive surgery centers in the world. She was recruited to Stanford from Cedar Sinai Medical Center in 2012, and is currently a Clinical Associate Professor in the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at Stanford University.

Dr. Nguyen specializes in aesthetic and reconstructive breast surgery, surgical treatment of lymphedema including vascularized lymph node transfer and lymphaticovenous anastomosis, and complex tissue reconstruction utilizing microsurgery and supermicrosurgery. She also has interest in cosmetic surgery, including facial rejuvenation and body contouring procedures.

In addition to her clinical commitment, Dr. Nguyen has basic science and clinical research interests in lymphedema and breast reconstruction. She has published articles in peer review journals, presented at national and international professional meetings and has authored book chapters in various plastic surgery textbooks. She also enjoys volunteering on overseas medical missions and participating in medical charity activities.

Clinical Focus

  • Cancer > Breast Cancer
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Lymphedema
  • Skin Cancer
  • Facial and Body Rejuvenation
  • Transgender Surgery

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director of Breast Reconstruction, Stanford Women's Cancer Center (2012 - Present)
  • Director of Adult Plastics Clinic, Stanford Healthcare (2016 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Division of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Teacher of the Year Award, Stanford University (2017)
  • Innovation Grant for Breast Reconstruction, Stanford Women's Cancer Center (2016)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education: University of California San Diego School of Medicine (2004) CA
  • Residency: Univ of Southern CA/LACplusUSC Medical Center (2010) CA
  • Residency: Univ of Southern CA/LACplusUSC Medical Center (2007) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Plastic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (2012)
  • Board Certification, Board of Pharmacy, CA (2003)
  • Fellowship, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, Microsurgery (2011)
  • Residency, USC, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery (2010)
  • Residency, USC, General Surgery (2007)
  • M.D., UCSD School of Medicine, CA (2004)
  • Pharm.D., UCSF School of Pharmacy, CA (2000)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials

  • Blossom Smart Expander Technology in Breast Reconstruction in Participants With Breast Cancer Undergoing Mastectomy Recruiting

    This phase 1 trial studies how well Blossom Smart Expander Technology works in breast reconstruction in participants with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy. Blossom Smart Expander Technology allows for slow and continuous injection of small amounts of saline, from an external pouch and based on precise pressure and volume measurements, into breast expander implants. It may help in achieving the same reconstructive goals as conventional tissue expansion in a shorter period of time and while avoiding frequent injections through the skin, which cause patient discomfort and require many clinic visits.

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  • Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of CHAM* for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Recruiting

    A Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blind Study with an Open-Label Extension Option to Further Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Cryopreserved Human Amniotic Membrane for the Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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  • Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Microsurgical Breast Recon w/Abdominal Free Flap in Breast CA Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to determine if using abdominal nerve blocks when patient undergo breast reconstruction can significantly decrease use of pain medications after reconstructive surgery.

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  • Vitamin D3 With Chemotherapy and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Recruiting

    This phase III trial studies how well vitamin D3 given with standard chemotherapy and bevacizumab works in treating patients with colorectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Vitamin D3 helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as leucovorin calcium, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as bevacizumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Giving vitamin D3 with chemotherapy and bevacizumab may work better in shrinking or stabilizing colorectal cancer. It is not yet known whether giving high-dose vitamin D3 in addition to chemotherapy and bevacizumab would extend patients' time without disease compared to the usual approach (chemotherapy and bevacizumab).

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  • A Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of the Mentor Larger Size MemoryGel Ultra High Profile Breast Implants in Subjects Who Are Undergoing Primary Breast Reconstruction or Revision Reconstruction Not Recruiting

    The study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness with the Mentor MemoryGel® Larger Size Ultra High Profile (UHP-L) Breast Implants.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • LymphBridge: Surgical Evaluation for Breast Cancer-Associated Lymphedema (BioBridge) Not Recruiting

    To investigate whether the addition of Fibralign's BioBridge® Collagen Matrix (BioBridge) devices to the standard surgery for vascularized lymph node transfer will improve the outcome of surgical treatment in lymphedema of the upper arm.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction & VTE Not Recruiting

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) encompasses pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and continues to be a major patient safety issue after reconstructive plastic surgery. Significant morbidity and mortality is associated with VTE events. This disease entity represents the most common cause of preventable in-hospital death as evidenced by over 100,000 annual VTE-related deaths in the U.S. The associated economic burden is substantial, with annual costs to the U.S. healthcare system in excess of $7 billion. Cancer patients have been identified as a particularly vulnerable patient population. Of these, breast cancer patients represent the largest group treated by plastic surgeons. An increasing number of breast reconstructions are performed in the U.S. with a documented 35% increase in the annual number of breast reconstructions since 2000. Over 106,000 breast reconstructions were performed in 2015 alone. Of all reconstructive modalities, autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal flaps is associated with the highest risk for VTE. We believe that a key element rendering these patients susceptible to postoperative VTE is inadequate duration of chemoprophylaxis. This is supported by the observation that VTE risk remains elevated for up to 12 weeks postoperatively. We hypothesize that lower extremity deep venous system stasis is a procedure-specific key contributing factor to postoperative VTE risk. This study examines the duration of postoperative lower extremity venous stasis to identify patients who might benefit from extended chemoprophylaxis. We will use Duplex imaging technology to examine the lower extremity deep venous system preoperatively, on postoperative day 1, and on the day of discharge to determine if patients display radiographic evidence of lower extremity venous stasis at the time of hospital discharge. A better understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to the development of VTE as well as surgical means that reduce VTE risk factors have the potential to optimize VTE prophylaxis, thus, favorably impacting clinical outcome in a large patient population.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Arash Momeni, MD, 650-723-6189.

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  • Prospective Evaluation of a Surgical Solution for Breast Cancer-Associated Lymphedema Not Recruiting

    To investigate whether addition of the Biobridge scaffold to the standard surgery for vascularized lymph node transfer will improve the outcome of surgical treatment in lymphedema of the upper arm.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leslie Roche, RN, 650-723-1396.

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  • SPY Intra-Operative Angiography & Skin Perfusion in Immediate Breast Reconstruction w/ Implants Not Recruiting

    The investigators hope to learn the value of the SPY ELITE® intra-operative angiography in reducing post-operative complications associated with low breast skin blood flow after breast reconstruction using implants.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Shannon Meyer, 650-724-1953.

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All Publications

  • Staged Approach to Autologous Reconstruction in the Ptotic Breast: A Comparative Study. Annals of plastic surgery Deptula, P. n., Yesantharao, P. n., Wapnir, I. n., Nguyen, D. n. 2021


    Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and autologous breast reconstruction are associated with higher patient satisfaction, quality of life, and aesthetic outcome. For patients with naturally ptotic breasts, this ideal reconstructive treatment of NSM and autologous breast reconstruction poses a challenge. We describe our experience in treating patients with ptotic natural breasts using a 2-staged approach: oncoplastic breast reduction in the first stage followed by nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous reconstruction in a second stage.We reviewed cases of patients with grade III ptosis who underwent a staged reconstruction approach with reduction mammaplasty followed by NSM and immediate reconstruction with an abdominally based free flap (2014-2019). We compared this group of patients to a second group who underwent staging with a technique of nipple-areola complex (NAC) devascularization. A survey was administered to assess for patient satisfaction and aesthetic outcome 1 year after the second stage procedure.Eight patients were identified in our reduction group, and 9 patients were identified in our devascularization group. No cases of total NAC necrosis were noted in either group (0%). Two cases of partial NAC necrosis were noted in the devascularization group (11%), whereas none were observed in the reduction group. All patients were satisfied with final outcome (100%, P = 1.0). Aesthetic scores across all factors were higher in the reduction group. Scores for overall outcome (4.6 vs 3.7, P = 0.04), natural appearance (4.8 vs 3.8, P = 0.01), breast contour (4.8 vs 3.2, P = 0.002), and position of breasts (5.0 vs 3.9, P = 0.03) were significantly higher in the reduction group.Breast ptosis no longer represents a contraindication for patients desiring nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous reconstruction. This series supports the use of a 2-staged approach with reduction mammaplasty in patients with naturally ptotic breasts. A staged reduction approach may offer fewer NAC complications while also allowing for superior aesthetic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002725

    View details for PubMedID 33470622

  • Immediate Targeted Nipple-Areolar Complex Re-Innervation: Improving Outcomes in Immediate Autologous Breast Reconstruction Tevlin, R., Wapnir, I., Nguyen, D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2020: S226?S227
  • Prophylactic treatment with transdermal deferoxamine mitigates radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Scientific reports Shen, A. H., Borrelli, M. R., Adem, S., Deleon, N. M., Patel, R. A., Mascharak, S., Yen, S. J., Sun, B. Y., Taylor, W. L., Januszyk, M., Nguyen, D. H., Momeni, A., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2020; 10 (1): 12346


    Radiation therapy can result in pathological fibrosis of healthy soft tissue. The iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) has been shown to improve skin vascularization when injected into radiated tissue prior to fat grafting. Here, we evaluated whether topical DFO administration using a transdermal drug delivery system prior to and immediately following irradiation (IR) can mitigate the chronic effects of radiation damage to the skin. CD-1 nude immunodeficient mice were split into four experimental groups: (1) IR alone (IR only), (2) DFO treatment for two weeks after recovery from IR (DFO post-IR), (3) DFO prophylaxis with treatment through and post-IR (DFO ppx), or (4) no irradiation or DFO (No IR). Immediately following IR, reactive oxygen species and apoptotic markers were significantly decreased and laser doppler analysis revealed significantly improved skin perfusion in mice receiving prophylactic DFO. Six weeks following IR, mice in the DFO post-IR and DFO ppx groups had improved skin perfusion and increased vascularization. DFO-treated groups also had evidence of reduced dermal thickness and collagen fiber network organization akin to non-irradiated skin. Thus, transdermal delivery of DFO improves tissue perfusion and mitigates chronic radiation-induced skin fibrosis, highlighting a potential role for DFO in the treatment of oncological patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-69293-4

    View details for PubMedID 32704071

  • Radiation-induced skin fibrosis is reversed by transdermal delivery of deferoxamine Borrelli, M. R., Adem, S., Diaz, N., Mascharak, S., Sen, A., Januszyk, M., Nguyen, D., Momeni, A., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. WILEY. 2020: S51?S52
  • Pro-Fibrotic CD26-Positive Fibroblasts Are Present in Greater Abundance in Breast Capsule Tissue of Irradiated Breasts AESTHETIC SURGERY JOURNAL Borrelli, M. R., Irizzary, D., Patel, R. A., Dung Nguyen, Momeni, A., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2020; 40 (4): 369?79

    View details for DOI 10.1093/asj/sjz109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000558971600024

  • Surgical Treatment of Lymphedema. JAMA surgery Ogunleye, A. A., Nguyen, D. H., Lee, G. K. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2020.0015

    View details for PubMedID 32211838

  • Use of hyaluronic acid filler for enhancement of nipple projection following breast reconstruction: An easy and effective technique. JPRAS open Sue, G. R., Seither, J. G., Nguyen, D. H. 2020; 23: 19?25


    Background: Breast reconstruction improves the psychological well-being of patients with breast cancer. Patients who complete nipple-areolar reconstruction are even more satisfied with their final reconstructive result. Nipple flattening is a common complication. We hypothesized that injectable soft-tissue filler can be used to augment nipple projection in patients who underwent breast reconstruction.Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent breast reconstruction and desired an enhanced postoperative nipple projection. The patients underwent a single session of injection with a hyaluronic acid filler as an outpatient. The filler was injected intradermally at the base of the nipple until the desired nipple projection was obtained.Results: Twelve patients and 22 breasts were included in this study. Enhanced nipple projection was observed in all cases, with an average increase of 3.0mm in nipple height (range 2.5-4.5mm). All injected nipples remained soft to the touch. All results were stable at a median of 7.5 months follow-up. No complications were observed.Conclusions: The use of injectable fillers for enhanced nipple projection is a useful adjunct treatment in patients undergoing breast reconstruction. Advantages include the ability to obtain nipple projection in patients who opt to forgo nipple-areola reconstruction with local flaps, to augment reconstructed nipples in patients with thin mastectomy skin flaps especially following implant-based reconstruction, and to improve projection of the native nipple following nipple-sparing mastectomy. Another benefit of this adjunct treatment is that the injection is reversible. Filler injection is a safe and simple solution to the problem of insufficient nipple projection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpra.2019.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 32158901

  • Assessing the Accuracy of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System in Breast Volume Estimation. Annals of plastic surgery Kwong, J. W., Tijerina, J. D., Choi, S. n., Luan, A. n., Feng, C. L., Nguyen, D. H., Lee, G. K., Nazerali, R. S. 2020


    Preoperative prediction of breast volume can guide patient expectations and aid surgical planning in breast reconstruction. Here, we evaluate the accuracy of a portable surface imager (Crisalix S.A., Lausanne, Switzerland) in predicting breast volume compared with anthropomorphic estimates and intraoperative specimen weights.Twenty-five patients (41 breasts) undergoing mastectomy were scanned preoperatively with the Crisalix surface imager, and 1 of 3 attending plastic surgeons provided an anthropomorphic volume estimate. Intraoperative mastectomy weights were used as the gold standard. Volume conversions were performed assuming a density of 0.958 g/cm.The Pearson correlation coefficient between imager estimates and intraoperative volumes was 0.812. The corresponding value for anthropomorphic estimates and intraoperative volumes was 0.848. The mean difference between imager and intraoperative volumes was -233.5 cm, whereas the mean difference between anthropomorphic estimates and intraoperative volumes was -102.7 cm. Stratifying by breast volume, both surface imager and anthropomorphic estimates closely matched intraoperative volumes for breast volumes 600 cm and less, but the 2 techniques tended to underestimate true volumes for breasts larger than 600 cm. Stratification by plastic surgeon providing the estimate and breast surgeon performing the mastectomy did not eliminate this underestimation at larger breast volumes.For breast volumes 600 cm and less, the accuracy of the Crisalix surface imager closely matches anthropomorphic estimates given by experienced plastic surgeons and true volumes as measured from intraoperative specimen weights. Surface imaging may potentially be useful as an adjunct in surgical planning and guiding patient expectations for patients with smaller breast sizes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002244

    View details for PubMedID 32032116

  • CD34+CD146+ adipose-derived stromal cells enhance engraftment of transplanted fat. Stem cells translational medicine Borrelli, M. R., Patel, R. A., Blackshear, C. n., Vistnes, S. n., Diaz Deleon, N. M., Adem, S. n., Shen, A. H., Sokol, J. n., Momeni, A. n., Nguyen, D. n., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2020


    Fat grafting is a surgical technique able to reconstruct and regenerate soft tissue. The adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) within the stromal vascular fraction are believed to drive these beneficial effects. ASCs are increasingly recognized to be a heterogeneous group, comprised of multiple stem and progenitor subpopulations with distinct functions. We hypothesized the existence of an ASC subpopulation with enhanced angiogenic potential. Human ASCs that were CD34+CD146+, CD34+CD146-, or CD34+ unfractionated (UF) were isolated by flow cytometry for comparison of expression of proangiogenic factors and endothelial tube-forming potential. Next, lipoaspirate was enriched with either CD34+CD146+, CD34+CD146-, CD34+ UF ASCs, or was not enriched, and grafted beneath the scalp skin of immunodeficient CD-1 Nude mice (10?000?cells/200??L/graft). Fat retention was monitored radiographically more than 8?weeks and fat grafts were harvested for histological assessment of quality and vascularization. The CD34+CD146+ subpopulation comprised ~30% of ASCs, and exhibited increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 compared to CD34+CD146- and CD34+ UF ASCs, and increased expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 compared to CD34+CD146- ASCs. The CD34+CD146+ subpopulation exhibited enhanced induction of tube-formation compared to CD34+CD146- ASCs. Upon transplantation, fat enriched CD34+CD146+ ASCs underwent less resorption and had improved histologic quality and vascularization. We have identified a subpopulation of CD34+ ASCs with enhanced angiogenic effects in?vitro and in?vivo, likely mediated by increased expression of potent proangiogenic factors. These findings suggest that enriching lipoaspirate with CD34+CD146+ ASCs may enhance fat graft vascularization and retention in the clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/sctm.19-0195

    View details for PubMedID 32543083

  • Immediate Targeted Nipple-Areolar Complex Reinnervation: Improving Outcomes in Gender-affirming Mastectomy. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Brazio, P. n., Wapnir, I. n., Nguyen, D. n. 2020; 8 (3): e2719


    Female-to-male mastectomy often renders the chest skin and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) insensate. We propose a new technique of preserving the intercostal nerves and using them to reinnervate the NAC after mastectomy.We performed a prospective analysis of transmasculine patients who underwent female-to-male mastectomy. The technique involves dissecting out the lateral intercostal nerves to length and performing a neurorrhaphy to nerve stumps at the base of the NAC. Sensory outcomes, as assessed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, were compared to a cohort of patients who underwent mastectomy without neurotization.Ten patients with a mean age of 17.5 years (range: 16-19 years) underwent mastectomy. The final follow-up was a mean of 15.4 ± 4.3 months for the treated group and 40.7 ± 12.9 months for the control group. Compared to control patients, treated patients had significant improvement in sensation at the nipple (P ? 0.0002), areola (P = 0.0001), and peripheral breast skin (P = 0.0001). For treated patients, there was no statistically significant difference in sensation between preoperative and postoperative sensation in all tested areas at final follow-up.This proof of concept study suggests that immediate reinnervation of the NAC after mastectomy enhances recovery of NAC sensation in patients undergoing female-to-male mastectomy and may be further generalized to women undergoing postmastectomy breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002719

    View details for PubMedID 32537367

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7253256

  • Delivery of Human Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells on Nanofibrillar Scaffolds for Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology Hu, C. n., Zaitseva, T. S., Alcazar, C. n., Tabada, P. n., Sawamura, S. n., Yang, G. n., Borrelli, M. R., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D. H., Paukshto, M. V., Huang, N. F. 2020; 8: 689


    Cell therapy for treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a promising approach but is limited by poor cell survival when cells are delivered using saline. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds as a vehicle for the delivery of human stromal vascular fraction (SVF), and then to assess the efficacy of the cell-seeded scaffolds in a murine model of PAD. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to characterize the phenotype of SVF cells from freshly isolated lipoaspirate, as well as after attachment onto aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds. Flow cytometry results demonstrated that the SVF consisted of 33.1 ± 9.6% CD45+ cells, a small fraction of CD45-/CD31+ (4.5 ± 3.1%) and 45.4 ± 20.0% of CD45-/CD31-/CD34+ cells. Although the subpopulations of SVF did not change significantly after attachment to the aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds, protein secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly increased by six-fold, compared to SVF cultured in suspension. Importantly, when SVF-seeded scaffolds were transplanted into immunodeficient mice with induced hindlimb ischemia, the cell-seeded scaffolds induced a significant higher mean perfusion ratio after 14 days, compared to cells delivered using saline. Together, these results show that aligned nanofibrillar scaffolds promoted cellular attachment, enhanced the secretion of VEGF from attached SVF cells, and their implantation with attached SVF cells stimulated blood perfusion recovery. These findings have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of PAD using SVF.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fbioe.2020.00689

    View details for PubMedID 32766213

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7380169

  • Immediate targeted nipple-areolar complex re-innervation: Improving outcomes in immediate autologous breast reconstruction. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS Tevlin, R. n., Brazio, P. n., Tran, N. n., Nguyen, D. n. 2020


    Breast reconstruction often renders the chest skin and nipple areolar complex (NAC) insensate. We propose a new technique of preserving the intercostal nerves during mastectomy and using them to reinnervate the NAC following mastectomy and immediate autologous tissue reconstruction. The technique involves preservation of the lateral intercostal nerves during mastectomy, dissection of the lateral intercostal nerves to length, coaptation of the intercostal nerves to a nerve graft which is then tunneled through the free flap and the distal nerve graft is then coapted to the nerve stumps at the base of the NAC. We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 breasts, which underwent nipple reinnervation during immediate autologous breast reconstruction. Mean age was 49 years (range: 32-61 years). Sensory outcomes, as tested with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, were compared to a cohort of breasts that underwent nipple sparing mastectomy without neurotization. Compared to control patients, there was no statistically significant difference (p?=?0.0969) in sensation between pre-operative and post-operative nipple sensation at final follow-up. This proof-of-concept study suggests that immediate re-innervation of the NAC in the setting of immediate breast reconstruction enhances recovery of the NAC sensation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2020.11.021

    View details for PubMedID 33341386

  • Global Health Microsurgery Training With Cell Phones. Annals of plastic surgery Inchauste, S. M., Deptula, P. L., Zelones, J. T., Nazerali, R. S., Nguyen, D. H., Lee, G. K. 2020; 84 (5S Suppl 4): S273?S277


    Lack of surgical care for trauma, burns, congenital anomalies, and other surgical diseases is a growing portion of global disability and death accounting for 30% of the global disease burden. Global surgical and anesthesia care aim to achieve excellence and equality of clinical care through leadership, innovation, teaching, research, and advocacy. Stanford University Division of Plastic Surgery faculty partnered with ReSurge International to teach reconstructive microsurgery in low- and middle-income countries.Global surgery teaching and training are challenged by limited resources. Surgical loupes and operating microscopes used to perform complex microsurgery magnify the surgical field are very expensive. Our goal was to identify low-cost alternatives to teach and practice microsurgery suturing.Use cell phone camera with zoom capacity to teach and practice microsurgery suturing.Cell phones with zoom feature are widely available even in low- and middle-income countries. A cell phone was placed on a stand over a microsurgery practice station. The camera was used to zoom and focus on the suturing station to mimic a surgical field with loupes or microscope magnification. Nine attending surgeons and 7 residents practiced microsurgery with microsurgical instruments and 9-0 nylon suture under the magnification of a cell phone camera. The Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training Scale was used to track their progress. A feedback survey was given to the participants to identify the usefulness of the cell phone setup for microsurgery suture practice.Global surgery teaching and training face many challenges especially limited resources. Identifying low-cost alternative is crucial. Cell phone camera with zoom is a low-cost alternative to loupes or operating microscope for microsurgical teaching and training.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000002403

    View details for PubMedID 32294075

  • Cryopreserved human skin allografts promote angiogenesis and dermal regeneration in a murine model. International wound journal Henn, D. n., Chen, K. n., Maan, Z. N., Greco, A. H., Moortgat Illouz, S. E., Bonham, C. A., Barrera, J. A., Trotsyuk, A. A., Padmanabhan, J. n., Momeni, A. n., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D. n., Januszyk, M. n., Gurtner, G. C. 2020


    Cryopreserved human skin allografts (CHSAs) are used for the coverage of major burns when donor sites for autografts are insufficiently available and have clinically shown beneficial effects on chronic non-healing wounds. However, the biologic mechanisms behind the regenerative properties of CHSA remain elusive. Furthermore, the impact of cryopreservation on the immunogenicity of CHSA has not been thoroughly investigated and raised concerns with regard to their clinical application. To investigate the importance and fate of living cells, we compared cryopreserved CHSA with human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) grafts in which living cells had been removed by chemical processing. Both grafts were subcutaneously implanted into C57BL/6 mice and explanted after 1, 3, 7, and 28?days (n = 5 per group). A sham surgery where no graft was implanted served as a control. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry were used to characterise the ultrastructure and cells within CHSA before implantation. Immunofluorescent staining of tissue sections was used to determine the immune reaction against the implanted grafts, the rate of apoptotic cells, and vascularisation as well as collagen content of the overlaying murine dermis. Digital quantification of collagen fibre alignment on tissue sections was used to quantify the degree of fibrosis within the murine dermis. A substantial population of live human cells with intact organelles was identified in CHSA prior to implantation. Subcutaneous pockets with implanted xenografts or ADMs healed without clinically apparent rejection and with a similar cellular immune response. CHSA implantation largely preserved the cellularity of the overlying murine dermis, whereas ADM was associated with a significantly higher rate of cellular apoptosis, identified by cleaved caspase-3 staining, and a stronger dendritic cell infiltration of the murine dermis. CHSA was found to induce a local angiogenic response, leading to significantly more vascularisation of the murine dermis compared with ADM and sham surgery on day 7. By day 28, aggregate collagen-1 content within the murine dermis was greater following CHSA implantation compared with ADM. Collagen fibre alignment of the murine dermis, correlating with the degree of fibrosis, was significantly greater in the ADM group, whereas CHSA maintained the characteristic basket weave pattern of the native murine dermis. Our data indicate that CHSAs promote angiogenesis and collagen-1 production without eliciting a significant fibrotic response in a xenograft model. These findings may provide insight into the beneficial effects clinically observed after treatment of chronic wounds and burns with CHSA.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/iwj.13349

    View details for PubMedID 32227459

  • The antifibrotic adipose-derived stromal cell: Grafted fat enriched with CD74+ adipose-derived stromal cells reduces chronic radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Stem cells translational medicine Borrelli, M. R., Patel, R. A., Adem, S. n., Diaz Deleon, N. M., Shen, A. H., Sokol, J. n., Yen, S. n., Chang, E. Y., Nazerali, R. n., Nguyen, D. n., Momeni, A. n., Wang, K. C., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2020


    Fat grafting can reduce radiation-induced fibrosis. Improved outcomes are found when fat grafts are enriched with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), implicating ASCs as key drivers of soft tissue regeneration. We have identified a subpopulation of ASCs positive for CD74 with enhanced antifibrotic effects. Compared to CD74- and unsorted (US) ASCs, CD74+ ASCs have increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2, and transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF-?3) and decreased levels of TGF-?1. Dermal fibroblasts incubated with conditioned media from CD74+ ASCs produced less collagen upon stimulation, compared to fibroblasts incubated with media from CD74- or US ASCs. Upon transplantation, fat grafts enriched with CD74+ ASCs reduced the stiffness, dermal thickness, and collagen content of overlying skin, and decreased the relative proportions of more fibrotic dermal fibroblasts. Improvements in several extracellular matrix components were also appreciated on immunofluorescent staining. Together these findings indicate CD74+ ASCs have antifibrotic qualities and may play an important role in future strategies to address fibrotic remodeling following radiation-induced fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/sctm.19-0317

    View details for PubMedID 32563212

  • The utility of three-dimensional models in complex microsurgical reconstruction. Archives of plastic surgery Ogunleye, A. A., Deptula, P. L., Inchauste, S. M., Zelones, J. T., Walters, S. n., Gifford, K. n., LeCastillo, C. n., Napel, S. n., Fleischmann, D. n., Nguyen, D. H. 2020; 47 (5): 428?34


    Three-dimensional (3D) model printing improves visualization of anatomical structures in space compared to two-dimensional (2D) data and creates an exact model of the surgical site that can be used for reference during surgery. There is limited evidence on the effects of using 3D models in microsurgical reconstruction on improving clinical outcomes.A retrospective review of patients undergoing reconstructive breast microsurgery procedures from 2017 to 2019 who received computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans only or with 3D models for preoperative surgical planning were performed. Preoperative decision-making to undergo a deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) versus muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (MS-TRAM) flap, as well as whether the decision changed during flap harvest and postoperative complications were tracked based on the preoperative imaging used. In addition, we describe three example cases showing direct application of 3D mold as an accurate model to guide intraoperative dissection in complex microsurgical reconstruction.Fifty-eight abdominal-based breast free-flaps performed using conventional CTA were compared with a matched cohort of 58 breast free-flaps performed with 3D model print. There was no flap loss in either group. There was a significant reduction in flap harvest time with use of 3D model (CTA vs. 3D, 117.7±14.2 minutes vs. 109.8±11.6 minutes; P=0.001). In addition, there was no change in preoperative decision on type of flap harvested in all cases in 3D print group (0%), compared with 24.1% change in conventional CTA group.Use of 3D print model improves accuracy of preoperative planning and reduces flap harvest time with similar postoperative complications in complex microsurgical reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.5999/aps.2020.00829

    View details for PubMedID 32971594

  • Blossom smart expander technology for tissue expander-based breast reconstruction facilitates shorter duration to full expansion: A pilot study. Archives of plastic surgery Choi, Y. K., Rochlin, D. H., Nguyen, D. H. 2020; 47 (5): 419?27


    This study evaluated the Blossom system, an innovative self-filling, rate-controlled, pressure-responsive saline tissue expander (TE) system. We investigated the feasibility of utilizing this technology to facilitate implant-based and combined flap with implant-based breast reconstruction in comparison to conventional tissue expansion.In this prospective, single-center, single-surgeon pilot study, participants underwent either implant-based breast reconstruction or a combination of autologous flap and implantbased breast reconstruction. Outcome measures included time to full expansion, complications, total expansion volume, and pain scores.Fourteen patients (TEs; n=22), were included in this study. The mean time to full expansion was 13.4 days (standard error of the mean [SEM], 1.3 days) in the combination group and 11.7 days (SEM, 1.4 days) in the implant group (P=0.78). The overall major complication rate was 4.5% (n=1). No statistically significant differences were found in the complication rate between the combination group and the implant group. The maximum patient-reported pain scores during the expansion process were low, but were significantly higher in the combination group (mean, 2.00±0.09) than in the implant group (mean, 0.29±0.25; P=0.005).The reported average duration for conventional subcutaneous TE expansion is 79.4 days, but this pilot study using the Blossom system achieved an average expansion duration of less than 14 days in both groups. The Blossom system may accommodate single-stage breast reconstruction. The overall complication rate of this study was 4.5%, which is promising compared to the reported complication rates of two-stage breast reconstruction with TEs (20%-45%).

    View details for DOI 10.5999/aps.2020.00535

    View details for PubMedID 32971593

  • Fat Grafting Rescues Radiation-Induced Joint Contracture. Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) Borrelli, M. R., Diaz Deleon, N. M., Adem, S., Patel, R. A., Mascharak, S., Shen, A. H., Irizarry, D., Nguyen, D., Momeni, A., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2019


    The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of fat grafting on radiation-induced hind limb contracture. Radiation therapy (RT) is used to palliate and/or cure a range of malignancies but causes inevitable and progressive fibrosis of surrounding soft tissue. Pathological fibrosis may lead to painful contractures which limit movement and negatively impact quality of life. Fat grafting is able to reduce and/or reverse radiation-induced soft tissue fibrosis. We explored whether fat grafting could improve extensibility in irradiated and contracted hind limbs of mice. Right hind limbs of female 60-day-old CD-1 nude mice were irradiated. Chronic skin fibrosis and limb contracture developed. After 4weeks, irradiated hind limbs were then injected with (a) fat enriched with stromal vascular cells (SVCs); (b) fat only; (c) saline; or (d) nothing (n = 10/group). Limb extension was measured at baseline and every 2weeks for 12weeks. Hind limb skin then underwent histological analysis and biomechanical strength testing. Irradiation significantly reduced limb extension but was progressively rescued by fat grafting. Fat grafting also reduced skin stiffness and reversed the radiation-induced histological changes in the skin. The greatest benefits were found in mice injected with fat enriched with SVCs. Hind limb radiation induces contracture in our mouse model which can be improved with fat grafting. Enriching fat with SVCs enhances these beneficial effects. These results underscore an attractive approach to address challenging soft tissue fibrosis in patients following RT.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.3115

    View details for PubMedID 31793745

  • Identifying risk factors for postoperative major complications in staged implant-based breast reconstruction with AlloDerm BREAST JOURNAL Remington, A. C., Gurtner, G. C., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D., Momeni, A. 2019; 25 (4): 597?603

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.13299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000474305600005

  • Successful treatment of lymphedema in a vasculopath and neuropathic patient. Journal of surgical oncology Inchauste, S., Zelones, J., Rochlin, D., Nguyen, D. H. 2019


    This is a case report of a 68-year-old male with stage III right lower extremity lymphedema following right inguinal lymph node dissection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. He developed peripheral neuropathy and radiation-induced right femoral artery thrombosis, treated with saphenous vein graft. He underwent three vascularized lymph node transfers (VLNTs) to the upper medial thigh, posterior calf, and ankle with placement of nanofibrillar collagen scaffolds. Three months after surgery, he had volume reduction, less neuropathic pain, and improved ambulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.25590

    View details for PubMedID 31228351

  • The role of adjunct nanofibrillar collagen scaffold implantation in the surgical management of secondary lymphedema: Review of the literature and summary of initial pilot studies. Journal of surgical oncology Rochlin, D. H., Inchauste, S., Zelones, J., Nguyen, D. H. 2019


    Secondary lymphedema is a worldwide affliction that exacts a significant public health burden. This review examines the etiology, presentation, and management of secondary lymphedema. In addition, emerging adjunctive strategies are explored, specifically evidence from animal and pilot human studies regarding implantation of a collagen nanofibrillar scaffold (BioBridge; Fibralign Corporation, Union City, CA) in promoting lymphangiogenesis, preventing and treating lymphedema, and enhancing outcomes with lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node transfer.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.25576

    View details for PubMedID 31209884

  • Breast Reconstruction with Free Abdominal Flaps Is Associated with Persistent Lower Extremity Venous Stasis PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Momeni, A., Sorice, S. C., Li, A. Y., Nguyen, D. H., Pannucci, C. 2019; 143 (6): 1144E?1150E
  • Postoperative analgesia after microsurgical breast reconstruction using liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel). The breast journal Momeni, A., Ramesh, N. K., Wan, D., Nguyen, D., Sorice, S. C. 2019


    Conventional opioid-based regimen for postoperative analgesia after autologous breast reconstruction can be associated with significant side effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an intraoperatively administered transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposomal bupivacaine on postoperative narcotic use in patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction with free abdominal flaps. Patients treated between December 2016 and June 2017 were included in the study. Parameters of interest were patient-reported pain score, total narcotic use (in oral morphine equivalent [OME]) during the hospitalization, length of stay (LOS), and the need for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Eighty-two free abdominal flaps were transferred in 46 patients with a mean age of 47.6years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 28.1kg/m2 . The average LOS was 3.5days (range, 3-5). Postoperatively, 42 patients (91.3%) did not require patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The mean time to first narcotic use after arrival on the nursing unit was 6hours (range, 0-19hours). The mean total postoperative OME use was 123.2mg (range, 0-285mg). However, analysis of OME use excluding the four patients requiring PCA revealed a mean OME use of 90.3mg (range, 0-167.5mg). Liposomal bupivacaine provides for reliable, safe, and long-acting postoperative analgesia and contributes to a reduction in postoperative narcotic intake. The use of liposomal bupivacaine shows great promise in improving the standard of care in postoperative analgesia in microsurgical breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.13349

    View details for PubMedID 31131501

  • Identifying risk factors for postoperative major complications in staged implant-based breast reconstruction with AlloDerm. The breast journal Remington, A. C., Gurtner, G. C., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D., Momeni, A. 2019


    Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) have reportedly been associated with postoperative complications following breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors predictive of major postoperative complications after staged implant-based breast reconstruction with ADM. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with AlloDerm between 2013 and 2017 was conducted. Demographic information, procedural data, and postoperative complications were retrieved. The main objective was to analyze patient and procedural factors associated with the occurrence of major complications, including postoperative readmission and loss of reconstruction. A total of 166 patients (288 breasts) were included. Major complications were noted in 19.9%. The overall rate of infection and mastectomy skin necrosis was 16.9% and 6.6%, respectively. Readmission occurred in 16.3% and loss of reconstruction occurred in 8.4% of patients. Risk factors for major complications included body mass index (BMI) >27.0 kg/m2 (OR 2.46; p = 0.041), higher tissue expander volume (p = 0.049), history of chemotherapy (OR 2.20; p = 0.047) and radiotherapy (OR 2.22; p = 0.040). Loss of reconstruction was associated with a BMI >27.0 kg/m2 (OR 4.00; p = 0.012), tobacco use (OR 6.64, p = 0.006), and higher tissue expander volume (p = 0.035). Similarly, readmission was associated with higher tissue expander volume (p = 0.042). In conclusion, a variety of factors were identified to be associated with major complications, including higher BMI, increased tissue expander volume, as well as history of chemotherapy and radiation. This information is valuable for pre-operative counseling and for future comparative studies between different ADM types.

    View details for PubMedID 31087378

  • Acellular Dermal Matrix Reduces Myofibroblast Presence in the Breast Capsule. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Tevlin, R., Borrelli, M. R., Irizarry, D., Nguyen, D., Wan, D. C., Momeni, A. 2019; 7 (5): e2213


    Background: Capsular contracture remains a common complication after implant-based breast reconstruction. Previous work has suggested that the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) reduces the rate of capsular contracture, though little is understood about the underlying mechanism. As myofibroblasts are believed to be the key cells implicated in contracture formation, we hypothesized that ADM would result in a reduction in periprosthetic myofibroblast concentration.Methods: Five patients who underwent immediate prepectoral tissue expander placement with anterior ADM coverage and an inferior cuff were included. At the second stage, tissue samples were obtained of both ADM and capsule from each reconstructed breast. Samples were then prepared for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for myofibroblast identification (alpha smooth muscle actin and vimentin positive and desmin negative) and analysis. Experimental values are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise stated. Statistical significance was determined using unpaired t test.Results: Successful incorporation of ADM was noted in all cases. A significant reduction in myofibroblast concentration was noted in the ADM versus the capsule (P = 0.0018). This was paralleled by significantly thicker periprosthetic capsule formation overlying the formerly raw pectoralis major muscle, that is, not covered by ADM (P < 0.0001).Conclusions: In the presence of ADM, there are significantly fewer myofibroblasts in breast capsules and thinner capsules on histology. Given the central role of myofibroblasts in the development of clinically significant capsular contracture, this study unmasks a possible mechanism for the protective effect of ADM with respect to capsular contracture development.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000002213

    View details for PubMedID 31333946

  • Pro-Fibrotic CD26-Positive Fibroblasts are Present in Greater Abundance in Breast Capsule Tissue of Irradiated Breasts. Aesthetic surgery journal Borrelli, M. R., Irizzary, D., Patel, R. A., Nguyen, D., Momeni, A., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Breast capsular contracture is a major problem following implant-based breast reconstruction, particularly in the setting of radiation therapy. Recent work has identified a fibrogenic fibroblast subpopulation characterized by CD26 surface marker expression.OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to investigate the role of CD26-positive fibroblasts in the formation of breast implant capsules following radiation therapy.METHODS: Breast capsule specimens were obtained from irradiated and non-irradiated breasts of 10 patients following bilateral mastectomy and unilateral irradiation at the time of expander-implant exchange, under institutional review board approval. Specimens were processed for Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, as well as for immunohistochemistry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) for CD26-positive fibroblasts. Expression of fibrotic genes and production of collagen was compared between CD26-positive, CD26-negative, and unsorted fibroblasts.RESULTS: Capsule specimens from irradiated breast tissue were thicker and had greater CD26-postive cells on immunofluorescence imaging and on FACS analysis, than did capsule specimens from the non-irradiated breast. Compared to CD26-negative fibroblasts, CD26-positive fibroblasts produced more collagen and had increased expression of the profibrotic genes IL8, TGF-beta1, COL1A1, and TIMP4.CONCLUSIONS: CD26-positive fibroblasts were found in a significantly greater abundance in capsules of irradiated compared to non-irradiated breasts and demonstrated greater fibrotic potential. This fibrogenic fibroblast subpopulation may play an important role in the development of capsular contracture following irradiation, and its targeted depletion or moderation may represent a potential therapeutic option.

    View details for PubMedID 30972420

  • Fat Grafting into Younger Recipients Improves Volume Retention in an Animal Model PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Chung, N. N., Ransom, R. C., Blackshear, C. P., Irizarry, D. M., Yen, D., Momeni, A., Lee, G. K., Nguyen, D. H., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2019; 143 (4): 1067?75
  • Breast Reconstruction with Free Abdominal Flaps is associated with Persistent Lower Extremity Venous Stasis. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Momeni, A., Sorice, S. C., Li, A. Y., Nguyen, D. H., Pannucci, C. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated the occurrence of lower extremity venous stasis in the early postoperative period after breast reconstruction with free abdominal flaps. The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether venous stasis persisted through the day of discharge (DOD), thus, potentially exposing patients to an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) post-discharge.METHODS: Patients who underwent breast reconstruction with free abdominal flaps were prospectively enrolled and underwent Duplex ultrasound of the common femoral vein (CFV) at the following time points: Preoperatively, POD 1, and DOD. Parameters of interest included CFV diameter, area, and maximum flow velocity (MFV).RESULTS: Thirty patients with a mean age of 50.3 years (range, 29 - 70) underwent breast reconstruction with 52 free abdominal flaps. A significant increase in CFV diameter (19.1%; p < 0.01) and area (46.8%; p < 0.01) correlated with a significant reduction in MFV (-10.9%; p = 0.03) between baseline and POD1. These changes persisted through the DOD (CFV diameter [17.8%; p < 0.01], area [46 %; p < 0.01], MFV (-11.3%; p = 0.01)]. Venous parameters were not influenced by uni- vs. bilateral flap harvest (p = 0.48).CONCLUSION: Postoperative lower extremity venous stasis following autologous breast reconstruction with free abdominal flaps seems to persist through the day of discharge. This finding may explain why patients remain at risk for VTE post-discharge. While our findings are at odds with current VTE prophylaxis recommendations, additional studies are indicated to examine whether these findings translate into VTE events.

    View details for PubMedID 30907811

  • Correction of complete thoracic duct obstruction with lymphovenous bypass: A case report MICROSURGERY Miller, T. J., Gilstrap, J. N., Maeda, K., Rockson, S., Nguyen, D. H. 2019; 39 (3): 255?58

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.30339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000462628500009

  • Fat Chance: The Rejuvenation of Irradiated Skin PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Borrelli, M. R., Patel, R. A., Sokol, J., Dung Nguyen, Momeni, A., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2019; 7 (2): e2092


    Radiotherapy (RT) helps cure and palliate thousands of patients with a range of malignant diseases. A major drawback, however, is the collateral damage done to tissues surrounding the tumor in the radiation field. The skin and subcutaneous tissue are among the most severely affected regions. Immediately following RT, the skin may be inflamed, hyperemic, and can form ulcers. With time, the dermis becomes progressively indurated. These acute and chronic changes cause substantial patient morbidity, yet there are few effective treatment modalities able to reduce radiodermatitis. Fat grafting is increasingly recognized as a tool able to reverse the fibrotic skin changes and rejuvenate the irradiated skin. This review outlines the current progress toward describing and understanding the cellular and molecular effects of fat grafting in irradiated skin. Identification of the key factors involved in the pathophysiology of fibrosis following RT will inform therapeutic interventions to enhance its beneficial effects.

    View details for PubMedID 30881833

  • Fat Grafting into Younger Recipients Improves Volume Retention in an Animal Model. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Chung, N. N., Ransom, R. C., Blackshear, C. P., Irizarry, D. M., Yen, D., Momeni, A., Lee, G. K., Nguyen, D. H., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Soft tissue deficits associated with various craniofacial anomalies can be addressed by fat grafting, although outcomes remain unpredictable. Furthermore, consensus does not exist for timing of these procedures. While some advocate approaching soft tissue reconstruction after the underlying skeletal foundation has been corrected, other studies have suggested earlier grafting may exploit a younger recipient niche that is more conducive for fat graft survival. As there is a dearth of research investigating effects of recipient age on fat graft volume retention, this study compared the effectiveness of fat grafting in younger versus older animals through a longitudinal, in vivo analysis.METHODS: Human lipoaspirate from three healthy female donors was grafted subcutaneously over the calvarium of immunocompromised mice. Volume retention over 8 weeks was evaluated using micro-computed tomography in three experimental ages - 3-weeks old, 6-months old, and 1-year old. Histology was performed on explanted grafts to evaluate graft health and vascularity. Recipient site vascularity was also evaluated by confocal microscopy.RESULTS: Greatest retention of fat graft volume was noted in the youngest group compared to both older groups (*p < 0.05) at 6 and 8 weeks following grafting. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that improved retention in younger groups was associated with greater fat graft integrity and more robust vascularization.CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that grafting fat into a younger recipient site correlates with improved volume retention over time, suggesting that beginning soft tissue reconstruction with fat grafting in patients at an earlier age may be preferable to late correction.

    View details for PubMedID 30730498

  • A Matched-Pair Analysis of Prepectoral with Subpectoral Breast Reconstruction: Is There a Difference in Postoperative Complication Rate? Plastic and reconstructive surgery Momeni, A. n., Remington, A. C., Wan, D. C., Nguyen, D. n., Gurtner, G. C. 2019; 144 (4): 801?7


    The development of acellular dermal matrices has revolutionized implant-based breast reconstruction. The most recent development has been the introduction of prepectoral breast reconstruction. However, concerns have been expressed related to the quality of soft-tissue coverage and infectious complications. Thus, the authors felt it prudent to perform a matched-pair analysis of clinical outcomes following prepectoral and subpectoral tissue expander placement.A retrospective study of patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction by means of prepectoral (group 1) and dual-plane subpectoral (group 2) tissue expander placement was performed. Patients in each group were matched for age, body mass index, history of radiotherapy, and type of acellular dermal matrix. Of note, patients in group 1 received perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for less than 24 hours, whereas patients in group 2 received antibiotic prophylaxis for at least 1 week.A total of 80 patients (138 breast reconstructions) were included in the study (group 1, n = 40; group 2, n = 40). No difference in total postoperative complication rate (p = 0.356) and mastectomy skin necrosis rate (p = 1.0) was noted. Observed differences in major complications (p = 0.06), major infection (p = 0.09), and loss of reconstruction (p = 0.09) were not found to be significant.Immediate prepectoral tissue expander insertion with anterior acellular dermal matrix coverage and less than 24 hours of antibiotic prophylaxis is safe and compares favorably to subpectoral tissue expander placement with an inferior acellular dermal matrix sling and a prolonged course of antibiotics.Therapeutic, III.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000006008

    View details for PubMedID 31568276

  • Preoperative Computed Tomography Angiography in Autologous Breast Reconstruction-Incidence and Impact of Incidentalomas PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY-GLOBAL OPEN Tevlin, R., Borrelli, M. R., Dung Nguyen, Momeni, A. 2018; 6 (12): e2019


    Incidentalomas are lesions found coincidentally during examination, imaging, or surgical procedures. Preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) before abdominal flap harvest for breast reconstruction can lead to identification of incidentalomas leading to the need for further investigations. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of incidental findings on preoperative CTA and to determine their impact on management.A retrospective chart review was performed at a single tertiary institution. CTA reports were analyzed for the presence of incidental findings and details of follow-up were studied. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with incidental findings.One hundred eighteen patients with a mean age of 49 years were included in the study. The majority of patients underwent bilateral reconstruction (65%, n = 77) in the immediate setting (70%, n = 83). Fifty-six percentage had an incidental finding on CTA, with hepatic (20%), renal (14%), and osseous (11%) abnormalities being most common. Additional imaging including ultrasound, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging were recommended in 19 cases (16%). Additional consultations were sought for 3 patients before reconstruction (with suspicion of bone metastases, an intraabdominal mass, and suspicion of colonic malignancy, respectively). No significant surgical delay secondary to CT findings was noted.Incidentalomas following preoperative CTA of the abdomen/pelvis are common (56%). However, unlike previous reports, we did not observe a change in reconstructive plan following incidentaloma discovery. We recommend that all patients are counseled pre-CTA regarding the possibilities of incidentaloma detection and need for additional imaging.

    View details for PubMedID 30656111

  • Correction of complete thoracic duct obstruction with lymphovenous bypass: A case report. Microsurgery Miller, T. J., Gilstrap, J. N., Maeda, K., Rockson, S., Nguyen, D. H. 2018


    Thoracic duct injury can be a devastating injury with disruption of lymphatic flow leading to potentially chylothorax and/or severe lymphedema. Standard treatment modalities include thoracic duct ligation or embolization for chylothorax, but treatment options to date are few for resultant lymphedema. In this case report, we describe lymphaticovenous bypass of the thoracic duct to the jugular venous system in a 21-year-old male with secondary lymphedema after iatrogenic thoracic duct injury. The patient experienced improvement of lymphedema symptoms including decreased weight and limb girth as well as normalization of serum markers indicating improved lymphatic delivery to the venous system. Lymphangiogram at 3 months post op demonstrated patency of the lymphaticovenous anastomoses. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had returned to his preoperative level of activity and showed continued improvement of his lymphedema symptoms. Lymphovenous bypass of the thoracic duct may be an effective technique to treat secondary lymphedema from thoracic duct obstruction, though further studies are required to determine long-term efficacy.

    View details for PubMedID 29974499

  • Deepithelialized Skin Reduction Preserves Skin and Nipple Perfusion in Immediate Reconstruction of Large and Ptotic Breasts. Annals of plastic surgery Rochlin, D. H., Nguyen, D. H. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Women with large and/or ptotic breasts are often not considered candidates for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and/or immediate breast reconstruction given difficulties avoiding ischemic complications and achieving a favorable aesthetic result. We report a novel technique involving deepithelialized skin reduction to simultaneously reduce the skin envelope and preserve perfusion to the skin and nipple in immediate breast reconstruction for women that fit this high-risk anatomic profile.METHODS: We reviewed cases of NSM and skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with immediate implant-based and free autologous reconstruction by a single plastic surgeon from 2013 to 2017. All patients had at least size C cup breasts (>500 g) and/or grade 3 ptosis. Select patients undergoing NSM had devascularization of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) 1 to 2 months before surgery to promote adaptive circulatory change. After mastectomy, skin reductions were performed via Wise, periareolar, or circumareolar reduction patterns, with infolding of a deepithelialized inferior and periareolar skin flap over a tissue expander or free flap. In NSM, the nipple was advanced superiorly and redirected through a keyhole of deepithelialized skin flap.RESULTS: Patients had an average age of 43.6 years and body mass index of 27.7. A total of 33 breasts in 19 patients (14 bilateral, 5 unilateral) underwent deepithelialized skin reduction. There were 14 NSM and 19 SSM. Reconstructions consisted of 13 tissue expanders exchanged to implants and 20 abdominally-based free flaps. Four patients underwent devascularization of the NAC before NSM. Six (18%) breasts had partial thickness flap loss that healed by delayed primary (n = 1) or secondary (n = 5) intention. Four nipples, all in patients without prior NAC devascularization, had ischemic complications (2 epidermolysis, 12.5%; 2 partial necrosis, 12.5%), which all healed by secondary intention with the exception of 1 case of NAC removal.CONCLUSIONS: Skin reduction with deepithelialization and tissue infolding preserves dermal plexus perfusion and promotes nipple and skin flap survival in immediate implant-based and autologous breast reconstruction after SSM and NSM. This technique can be combined with NAC devascularization to further promote nipple perfusion. Overall, this method offers an acceptable complication rate and the potential to expand the reconstructive options available to women with large and/or ptotic breasts.

    View details for PubMedID 29746276

  • Deferoxamine Preconditioning of Irradiated Tissue Improves Perfusion and Fat Graft Retention PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Flacco, J., Chung, N., Blackshear, C. P., Irizarry, D., Momeni, A., Lee, G. K., Dung Nguyen, Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C. 2018; 141 (3): 655?65


    Radiation therapy is a mainstay in the treatment of many malignancies, but collateral damage to surrounding tissue, with resultant hypovascularity, fibrosis, and atrophy, can be difficult to reconstruct. Fat grafting has been shown to improve the quality of irradiated skin, but volume retention of the graft is significantly decreased. Deferoxamine is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved iron-chelating medication for acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload that has also been shown to increase angiogenesis. The present study evaluates the effects of deferoxamine treatment on irradiated skin and subsequent fat graft volume retention.Mice underwent irradiation to the scalp followed by treatment with deferoxamine or saline and perfusion and were analyzed using laser Doppler analysis. Human fat grafts were then placed beneath the scalp and retention was also followed up to 8 weeks radiographically. Finally, histologic evaluation of overlying skin was performed to evaluate the effects of deferoxamine preconditioning.Treatment with deferoxamine resulted in significantly increased perfusion, as demonstrated by laser Doppler analysis and CD31 immunofluorescent staining (p < 0.05). Increased dermal thickness and collagen content secondary to irradiation, however, were not affected by deferoxamine (p > 0.05). Importantly, fat graft volume retention was significantly increased when the irradiated recipient site was preconditioned with deferoxamine (p < 0.05).The authors' results demonstrated increased perfusion with deferoxamine treatment, which was also associated with improved fat graft volume retention. Preconditioning with deferoxamine may thus enhance fat graft outcomes for soft-tissue reconstruction following radiation therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 29135894

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5826842

  • Successful management of persistent lower extremity lymphedema with suction-assisted lipectomy GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY REPORTS Micha, J. P., Nguyen, D. H., Goldstein, B. H. 2018; 23: 13?15


    Lower-extremity lymphedema is a significant complication attributed to gynecologic cancer surgery, potentially effectuating severe edema and discernible pain.We report on a patient who developed persistent, lower-extremity lymphedema following her treatment for cervix cancer. Despite repeated efforts to manage the lymphedema with conventional measures, the patient's condition had not markedly improved. Thereafter, she underwent a suction-assisted lipectomy that effectively resolved her symptoms.Since lymphedema often remains disabling and incurable following traditional therapy, suction-assisted lipectomy should be considered as an alternative when endeavoring to optimally manage this complication.

    View details for PubMedID 29322088

  • Transversus Abdominis Plane Block and Free Flap Abdominal Tissue Breast Reconstruction: Is There a True Reduction in Postoperative Narcotic Use? Annals of plastic surgery Hunter, C., Shakir, A., Momeni, A., Luan, A., Steffel, L., Horn, J., Nguyen, D., Lee, G. K. 2017; 78 (3): 254-259


    The use of the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is increasing in abdominally based autologous tissue breast reconstruction as a method to provide postoperative donor site analgesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the TAP block in the immediate postoperative period.A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction over a 2-year period (2013-2015) was conducted. Only patients with an abdominal donor site were included. Patients were grouped based on the presence or absence of TAP blocks. Primary endpoints included patient-reported pain score, daily and total narcotic use during the hospitalization, antiemetic use, as well as complications.We identified 40 patients that had undergone abdominal-based free flap breast reconstruction and TAP block catheter placement for postoperative analgesia that met inclusion criteria. This group was then compared with a matched cohort of 40 patients without TAP blocks. There were no complications associated with using the TAP catheters. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative pain scores, daily or total narcotic use during the hospitalization, or antiemetic use between the 2 groups. Although not statistically significant, linear regression analysis identified trends of improved donor site analgesia in select groups, such as unilateral immediate reconstructions, body mass index greater than 30 kg/m, and those without abdominal mesh placed at the time of donor site closure in the TAP block group.Constant delivery of local anesthetic through the TAP block appears to be safe; however, it did not reduce narcotic requirements or postoperative pain scores in patients undergoing abdominal-based free flap breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000873

    View details for PubMedID 28118232

  • Protecting Nipple Perfusion by Devascularization and Surgical Delay in Patients at Risk for Ischemic Complications During Nipple-Sparing Mastectomies ANNALS OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Bertoni, D. M., Dung Nguyen, D., Rochlin, D., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Meyer, S., Choy, N., Gurtner, G. C., Wapnir, I. L. 2016; 23 (8): 2665-2672


    Indications for nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) are expanding; however, high-risk patients have more ischemic complications. Surgical devascularization of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) prior to NSM can reduce complications. This study reports perfusion patterns and complications in high-risk patients undergoing 2-stage NSM.Surgical devascularization of the NAC was performed 3-6 weeks prior to NSM in 28 women. Risk factors included ptosis, obesity, smoking, prior breast surgery, and radiation. Using indocyanine green (ICG)-based fluorescence and an infrared camera, blood inflow was visualized intraoperatively. NAC perfusion patterns were classified as: V1, underlying breast; V2, surrounding skin; V3 = V1 + V2, or V4, capillary fill following devascularization. Ischemic complications were analyzed.Baseline perfusion for 54 breasts was 35 % V1, 32 % V2, and 33 % V3. Increasing ptosis was associated with V1 pattern: 86 % for grade 3, 31 % for grade 2, and 18 % for grade 1. Postdevascularization epidermolysis was observed in 63 % of V1 baseline, 41 % of V2, and 22 % of V3 (P = .042) and after NSM in 26 % for V1, 7 % for V2, and 6 % for V3 (P = .131). Ptosis was significantly associated with epidermolysis postdevascularization (P = .002) and NSM (P = .002). Smoking and BMI ?30 were related to increased ischemic complications. Two or more risk factors were associated with postdevascularization ischemic changes (P = .026), but were not significant after NSM. Nipple loss was not observed, but 2 patients underwent partial areolar resection.Adaptive circulatory changes after devascularization allow tissues to tolerate the additional ischemic challenge of mastectomy. Our findings support extending 2-staged operations to high-risk women previously considered unsuitable for NSM.

    View details for DOI 10.1245/s10434-016-5201-8

    View details for PubMedID 27038458

  • Breast Augmentation and Breast Reconstruction Demonstrate Equivalent Aesthetic Outcomes. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Rochlin, D. H., Davis, C. R., Nguyen, D. H. 2016; 4 (7)


    There is a perception that cosmetic breast surgery has more favorable aesthetic outcomes than reconstructive breast surgery. We tested this hypothesis by comparing aesthetic outcomes after breast augmentation and reconstruction.Postoperative images of 10 patients (cosmetic, n = 4; reconstructive, n = 6; mean follow-up, 27 months) were presented anonymously to participants who were blinded to clinical details. Participants were asked if they believed cosmetic or reconstructive surgery had been performed. Aesthetic outcome measures were quantified: (1) natural appearance, (2) size, (3) contour, (4) symmetry, (5) position of breasts, (6) position of nipples, (7) scars (1 = poor and 4 = excellent). Images were ranked from 1 (most aesthetic) to 10 (least aesthetic). Analyses included two-tailed t tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and ?(2) tests.One thousand eighty-five images were quantified from 110 surveys (99% response rate). The accuracy of identifying cosmetic or reconstructive surgery was 55% and 59%, respectively (P = 0.18). Significantly more of the top 3 aesthetic cases were reconstructive (51% vs 49%; P = 0.03). Despite this, cases perceived to be reconstructive were ranked significantly lower (5.9 vs 5.0; P < 0.0001). Mean aesthetic outcomes were equivalent regardless of surgery for 5 categories (P > 0.05), with the exception of breast position that improved after reconstruction (2.9 vs 2.7; P = 0.009) and scars that were more favorable after augmentation (2.9 vs 3.1; P < 0.0001). Age and nipple position (R (2) = 0.04; P = 0.03) was the only association between a demographic factor and aesthetic outcome.Aesthetic outcomes after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgery are broadly equivalent, though preconceptions influence aesthetic opinion. Plastic surgeons' mutually inclusive-reconstructive and aesthetic skill set maximizes aesthetic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000000824

    View details for PubMedID 27536490

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4977139

  • Use of Indocyanine Green-SPY Angiography for Tracking Lymphatic Recovery After Lymphaticovenous Anastomosis. Annals of plastic surgery Shih, H. B., Shakir, A., Nguyen, D. H. 2016; 76: S232-7


    Lymphaticovenous anastomosis (LVA) is a surgical treatment option for patients with early stage lymphedema. To date, no ideal imaging modality exists for tracking patency of the LVA postoperatively. We hypothesize that laser angiography utilizing indocyanine green (ICG) via the SPY system (Lifecell Corp.) would be a useful methodology for assessing the patency of the LVA and lymphatic recovery postoperatively.A prospective trial was performed on patients with stage II lymphedema who underwent LVA from 2013 to 2014 by a single surgeon. All candidates underwent preoperative and postoperative lymphatic mapping using ICG-SPY angiography. Postoperative analyses were performed at 1 month and at 9 months after surgery and assessed for patency at the site of the LVAs and for changes in lymphatic pattern.Five patients underwent LVA, 3 for upper extremity and 2 for lower extremity stage II lymphedema. The number of LVAs per extremity was 1 to 3 (total, 11). One month postoperative ICG-SPY angiography demonstrated flow through 9 of 11 anastomoses. Evaluation at 9 months postoperative showed improvement in lymphatic drainage.Indocyanine green-SPY angiography may be used to objectively evaluate the surgical outcome of LVA.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000766

    View details for PubMedID 27070461

  • Quantity of lymph nodes correlates with improvement in lymphatic drainage in treatment of hind limb lymphedema with lymph node flap transfer in rats. Microsurgery Nguyen, D. H., Chou, P., Hsieh, Y., Momeni, A., Fang, Y. D., Patel, K. M., Yang, C., Cheng, M. 2016; 36 (3): 239-245


    This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of vascularized lymph nodes (LN) transferred and resolution of hind limb lymphedema in a rat model.Unilateral hind limb lymphedema was created in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats following inguinal and popliteal LN resection and radiation. A para-aortic LN flap based on the celiac artery was subsequently transferred to the affected groin. The three study groups consisted of Group A (no LN transfer), Group B (transfer of a single vascularized LN), and Group C (transfer of three vascularized LNs). Volumetric analysis of bilateral hind limbs was performed using micro-CT imaging at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. Lymphatic drainage was assessed with Tc(99) lymphoscintigraphy preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.A statistically significant volume reduction was seen in Groups B and C compared to Group A at all time points. Volume reduction of Group A vs.Group B at 1 month (8.6%?±?2.0% vs. 2.7%?±?2.6%, P?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.22388

    View details for PubMedID 25715830

  • Using intraoperative laser angiography to safeguard nipple perfusion in nipple-sparing mastectomies. Gland surgery Dua, M. M., Bertoni, D. M., Nguyen, D., Meyer, S., Gurtner, G. C., Wapnir, I. L. 2015; 4 (6): 497-505


    The superior aesthetic outcomes of nipple-sparing mastectomies (NSM) explain their increased use and rising popularity. Fortunately, cancer recurrences involving the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) have been reassuringly low in the range of 1%. Technical considerations and challenges of this procedure are centered on nipple ischemia and necrosis. Patient selection, reconstructive strategies and incision placement have lowered ischemic complications. In this context, rates of full NAC necrosis are 3% or less. The emergence of noninvasive tissue angiography provides surgeons with a practical tool to assess real-time breast skin and NAC perfusion. Herein, we review our classification system of NAC perfusion patterns defined as V1 (from subjacent breast), V2 (surrounding skin), and V3 (combination of V1 + V2). Additionally, we describe the benefits of a first stage operation to devascularize the NAC as a means of improving blood flow to the NAC in preparation for NSM, helping extend the use of NSM to more women. Intraoperative evaluation of skin perfusion allows surgeons to detect ischemia and modify the operative approach to optimize outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.3978/j.issn.2227-684X.2015.04.15

    View details for PubMedID 26645004

  • Motion Analysis for Microsurgical Training: Objective Measures of Dexterity, Economy of Movement, and Ability. Plastic and reconstructive surgery McGoldrick, R. B., Davis, C. R., Paro, J., Hui, K., Nguyen, D., Lee, G. K. 2015; 136 (2): 231e-40e


    Evaluation of skill acquisition in microsurgery has traditionally relied on subjective opinions of senior faculty, but is shifting toward early competency-based training using validated models. No objective measures of dexterity, economy of movement, and ability exist. The authors propose a novel video instrument motion analysis scoring system to objectively measure motion.Video of expert microsurgeons was analyzed and used to develop a resident motion analysis scoring system based on a mathematical model. Motion analysis scores were compared to blinded, global rating scores of the same videos using the Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training scale.Eighty-five microsurgical anastomoses from 16 residents ranging from postgraduate years 1 through 6 were analyzed. Composite motion analysis scores for each segmented video correlated positively to arterial anastomotic experience (rho, +0.77; p < 0.001). Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training scale interrater reliability was consistent between expert assessors, and mean composite motion analysis overall performance and Stanford scores were well matched for each level of experience. Composite motion analysis scores correlated significantly with combined Stanford Microsurgery and Resident Training [instrument handling (rho, +0.66; p < 0.01), efficiency (rho, +0.59; p < 0.01), suture handling (rho, +0.83; p < 0.001), operative flow (rho, +0.67; p < 0.001), and overall performance (rho, +89; p < 0.001)] motion components of the scale.Instrument motion analysis provides a novel, reliable, and consistent objective assessment for microsurgical trainees. It has an associated cost, but is timely, repeatable, and senior physician independent, and exposes patients to zero risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0000000000001469

    View details for PubMedID 26218398

  • Using intraoperative laser angiography to safeguard perfusion in nipple-sparing mastectomies. Gland Surgery Journal Dua, M., Bertoni, D., Nguyen, D. H., Meyer, S., Gurtner, G., Wapnir, I. 2015
  • Quantity of lymph nodes correlates with improvement in lymphatic drainage in treatment of hind limb lymphedema with lymph node flap transfer in rats Microsurgery Nguyen, D. H., Chou, P. Y., Hsieh, Y. H., Momeni, A., Fang, Y. D., Patel, K. M., Yang, C. Y., Ko, Y. S., Cheng, M. H. 2015: 239?45


    This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between the number of vascularized lymph nodes (LN) transferred and resolution of hind limb lymphedema in a rat model.Unilateral hind limb lymphedema was created in 18 male Sprague-Dawley rats following inguinal and popliteal LN resection and radiation. A para-aortic LN flap based on the celiac artery was subsequently transferred to the affected groin. The three study groups consisted of Group A (no LN transfer), Group B (transfer of a single vascularized LN), and Group C (transfer of three vascularized LNs). Volumetric analysis of bilateral hind limbs was performed using micro-CT imaging at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. Lymphatic drainage was assessed with Tc(99) lymphoscintigraphy preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively.A statistically significant volume reduction was seen in Groups B and C compared to Group A at all time points. Volume reduction of Group A vs.Group B at 1 month (8.6%?±?2.0% vs. 2.7%?±?2.6%, P?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.22388

  • Developing a Lower Limb Lymphedema Animal Model with Combined Lymphadenectomy and Low-dose Radiation. Plastic and reconstructive surgery. Global open Yang, C., Nguyen, D. H., Wu, C., Fang, Y. D., Chao, K., Patel, K. M., Cheng, M. 2014; 2 (3)


    This study was aimed to establish a consistent lower limb lymphedema animal model for further investigation of the mechanism and treatment of lymphedema.Lymphedema in the lower extremity was created by removing unilateral inguinal lymph nodes followed by 20, 30, and 40 Gy (groups IA, IB, and IC, respectively) radiation or by removing both inguinal lymph nodes and popliteal lymph nodes followed by 20 Gy (group II) radiation in Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400?g). Tc(99) lymphoscintigraphy was used to monitor lymphatic flow patterns. Volume differentiation was assessed by microcomputed tomography and defined as the percentage change of the lesioned limb compared to the healthy limb.At 4 weeks postoperatively, 0% in group IA (n = 3), 37.5% in group IB (n = 16), and 50% in group IC (n = 26) developed lymphedema in the lower limb with total mortality and morbidity rate of 0%, 56.3%, and 50%, respectively. As a result of the high morbidity and mortality rates, 20 Gy was selected, and the success rate for development of lymphedema in the lower limb in group II was 81.5% (n = 27). The mean volume differentiation of the lymphedematous limb compared to the health limb was 7.76% ± 1.94% in group II, which was statistically significant compared to group I (P < 0.01).Removal of both inguinal and popliteal lymph nodes followed by radiation of 20 Gy can successfully develop lymphedema in the lower limb with minimal morbidity in 4 months.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GOX.0000000000000064

    View details for PubMedID 25289315

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4174147

  • A Novel Approach to the Treatment of Lower Extremity Lymphedema by Transferring a Vascularized Submental Lymph Node Flap to the Ankle. Gynecologic Oncology Cheng, M. H., Huang, J. J., Nguyen, D. H., Saint-Cyr, M., Zenn, M. R., Tan, B. K., Lee, C. L. 2012; 126: 93-98
  • Anatomical Basis and Clinical Application of the Ulnar Forearm Free Flap for Head and Neck Reconstruction. The Laryngoscope Huang, J. J., Lam, W. L., Phil, M., Nguyen, D. H., Wu, C. W., Kao, H. K., Lin, C. Y., Cheng, M. H. 2012; 122 (12): 2670-6
  • Simultaneous Left Maxillary and Right Mandibular Reconstructions Using Split Osteomyocutaneous Peroneal Artery-based Combined Flaps. Head and Neck Nguyen, D. H., Wu, C. W., Huang, J. J., Cheng, M. H. 2011; 10: 1002-5
  • Simultaneous Scarless Contralateral Breast Augmentation During Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Differentially Split DIEP Flaps. Plastic Reconstructive Surgery Huang, J. J., Chao, L. F., Wu, C. W., Nguyen, D. H., Valerio, I. L., Cheng, M. H. 2011; 12 (6): 593e-604e
  • A novel approach to cervical reconstruction using vaginal mucosa-lined polytetrafluoroethylene graft in congenital agenesis of the cervix. Fertility and Sterility Nguyen, D. H., Lee, C. L., Wu, K. Y., Cheng, M. H. 2011; 95 (7): 2433.e5-8
  • Simultaneous Contralateral Breast Reduction/Mastopexy with Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Free Abdominal Flaps. Annals of Plastic Surgery Huang, J. J., Wu, C. W., Lam, W. L., Lin, C. Y., Nguyen, D. H., Cheng, M. H. 2011: 336-42
  • How to Harvest a Fibula Flap in 45 Minutes. Plastic Surgery Pulse News Nguyen, D. H., Lin, C. H. 2011; 3 (2)
  • A Novel Approach to Acute Infection of the Glenohumeral Joint Following Rotator Cuff Repair ? A case series. Wounds Dobke, M. K., Nguyen, D. H., Trott, S. A. 2005; 17 (6): 137-140
  • Estrogen Accelerates the Development of Renal Disease in Female Obese Zucker Rats. Kidney International Gades, M. D., Sterns, J. S., van Goor, H., Nguyen, D. H., Johnson, P. R., Kaysen, G. A. 1998; 53 (1): 130-5

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